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Monday, 29 December 2014

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): The Preventive Antioxidant enzymes

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system

                           Dementia



About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V.  Preventions
B. Antioxidants and Dementia
B.1. Antioxidant enzymes
Antioxidant enzymes, chemical substances found in plants, protect the body from damage of free radicals by terminating the chain reactions through removing free radical intermediates and inhibiting  oxidation reactions.
1. Catalase
Catalase is an enzyme, found in most living organisms exposed to oxygen for action of converse hydrogen peroxide (free radicals)(226) to water and oxygen as a rate of 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen each second, using either an iron or manganese cofactor. The antioxidants showed to protect cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide in pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related diseases(222) inducted early stages of aggregation of the amyloid peptides(225), including neurodegeneration(224) such as Alzheimer's diseas(223).

2. Glutathione peroxidase
The function of glutathione peroxidase is to protect the organism from oxidative damage and induced neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease(228) by removing lipid hydroperoxides(227), causes of oxidation of lipid cell membranes. probably through its major cellular peroxide scavenging enzyme(228) and maintaining the oxidative phosphorylation system and protecting mitochondria(229) and protecting oxidative injury and amyloid toxicity of cortical neurons(230).

3. Glutathione reductase
Glutathione reductase, an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate Gglutathione (GSH) levels at 24h(233),  and reduced pair of sulfur atoms glutathione to a organosulfur compound form of antioxidant (consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds) may play an important role in prevention of damage of important cellular components induced neurodegenerative diseases such as PD(231)(232), caused by free radicals and peroxides. probably through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties(231)

4. Super oxide dismutase (both Cu-Zn and Mn)
Super oxide dismutase is an important antioxidant and immune defense(224) in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide depending on the metal cofactor such as both Cu-Zn and Mn(225), probably through the attenuation of superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases (CATs)(225) in enhanced and protection of biochemical/molecular/neurobiological  function(226).

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References
(222) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152049
(223) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24524075
(224) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25241122(225) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16141213
(226) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887508
(227) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10930377
(228) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19769463
(229) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22634395
(230) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16673405
(231) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24090962