Thursday, 4 December 2014

Women's Health - Premenstrual syndrome(PMS): The Effects of Phytoestrogens(Revised edition with references)

By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

 Premenstrual syndrome is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, effected over 70% to 90% of women in the US and lesser for women in Southeast Asia because of difference in living style and social structure. The syndrome also interferes women's physical and emotional states, and daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation and occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.

I. Phytoestrogens
Phytoestrogens also known as dietary estrogen, are non steroidal plant compounds, having a structural similarity of estradiol with  ability to promote estrogenic(1)(2) and anti estrogenic(3) effects.

II. The effects
1. Hormone balancing
As we mentioned in the definition, phytoestrogens in the plant have the ability to lower levels of estrogen if it is too high and higher the levels of estrogen if it is too low(3)(4). Since most women with pre-mentsrual syndrome always have some kinds of hormone imbalance(6), intake of photyestrogens not only restores the balance, but also reduces the symptoms of PMS, such as headache and breast tenderness(5).

2. Hormone stimulating
Phytoestrogens also have the ability to regulating the levels of sex hormone binding globulin SHBG(7) circulating in the bloodstream. SHBG is produced by liver in fat and protein metabolism(7) and the right levels of SHBG help to reduce symptoms of PMS(8).

3. Menstrual cycle
Intake of phytoestrogens induced reduction of over production of estrogen(1)(2)(3) causes of mammary cancers(10)(11) through increased the length of menstrual cycle(9).

4. Liver booster
Phytoestrogen also increases the liver function(13) in regulating the levels of prostaglandins hormone by fat and protein metabolism, thus lessening the menstrual pain and cramps(12)(14) for some women with PMS.

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(1)Synergistic Action of Flavonoids, Baicalein, and Daidzein in Estrogenic and Neuroprotective Effects: A Development of Potential Health Products and Therapeutic Drugs against Alzheimer's Disease by Choi RC1, Zhu JT, Yung AW, Lee PS, Xu SL, Guo AJ, Zhu KY, Dong TT, Tsim KW.(PubMed)
(2) Flavonoids possess neuroprotective effects on cultured pheochromocytoma PC12 cells: a comparison of different flavonoids in activating estrogenic effect and in preventing beta-amyloid-induced cell death by Zhu JT1, Choi RC, Chu GK, Cheung AW, Gao QT, Li J, Jiang ZY, Dong TT, Tsim KW.(PubMed)
(3) Isoflavones: chemistry, analysis, functions and effects on health and cancer by Ko KP.(PubMed)
(4) The physiological actions of isoflavone phytoestrogensby Pilšáková L1, Riečanský I, Jagla F.(PubMed)
(5) Effect of consumption of soy isoflavones on behavioural, somatic and affective symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome by Bryant M1, Cassidy A, Hill C, Powell J, Talbot D, Dye L.(PubMed)
(6) Hormonal and volume dysregulation in women with premenstrual syndrome by Rosenfeld R1, Livne D, Nevo O, Dayan L, Milloul V, Lavi S, Jacob G.(PubMed)
(7) Effect of dietary components, including lignans and phytoestrogens, on enterohepatic circulation and liver metabolism of estrogens and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by Adlercreutz H1, Höckerstedt K, Bannwart C, Bloigu S, Hämäläinen E, Fotsis T, Ollus A.(PubMed)
(8) Serum levels of androgens are higher in women with premenstrual irritability and dysphoria than in controls by Eriksson E1, Sundblad C, Lisjö P, Modigh K, Andersch B.(PubMed)
(9) Effect of soymilk consumption on serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal Japanese women by Nagata C1, Takatsuka N, Inaba S, Kawakami N, Shimizu H.(PubMed)
(10) Impact of obesity on mammary gland inflammation and local estrogen production by Brown KA.(PubMed)
(11) RANKL signaling promotes progesterone mediated estrogen induced mammary carcinogenesis by Boopalan T1, Arumugam A, Parada J, Saltzstein E, Lakshmanaswamy R.(PubMed)
(12) The effects of a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet on markers of uterine contractility during parturition in the rat by Elmes MJ1, Tan DS, Cheng Z, Wathes DC, McMullen S.(PubMed)
(13) Thioacetamide-induced liver injury: protective role of genistein by Saleh DO1, Abdel Jaleel GA, El-Awdan SA, Oraby F, Badawi M.(PubMed)
(14) Reproductive hormones in plasma over the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea compared with healthy subjects by Liedman R1, Hansson SR, Howe D, Igidbashian S, McLeod A, Russell RJ, Akerlund M.(PubMed)

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