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Friday, 5 December 2014

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system - The Deficient Causes of Dementia

 By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

               Diseases of Central Nervous system

                                 Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
II. Causes of dementia
A. Deficient cause of dementia due to aging
1. Vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) deficiency
Vitamin D levels not only plays a important role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated diseases including cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and stroke, but  also associats with increased risk of prevalent cognitive dysfunction. According to number of studies, raising vitamin D plays a role in decreased cognitive dysfunction and dementia(a).  Evidence from epidemiological also insisted the association between 25(OH)D concentrations and systolic blood pressure, risk for CV disease-related deaths, symptoms of depression, cognitive deficits, and mortality(b).

2. Folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency
Folates are vitamins essential to the development of the central nervous system. Deficiency of folate can increase the risk of dementia. According to Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group, folic acid plus vitamin B12 was effective in reducing the serum homocysteine concentrations, with no adverse effects(c).

3. Vitamin B12 deficiency
An association between neuropsychiatric disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency has been recognized since 1849. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 are found in many elder and might contribute to age-associated cognitive impairment, according to the Scientist at Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group(d).

4. Vitamin B6 deficiency
 Vitamin B6 supplementation showed to reduce the risk of developing cognitive impairment by older healthy people, or improving cognitive functioning of people with cognitive decline and dementia, according the study conducted by Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group(e).

5. Deficiency of Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1and growth hormones
Deficiency of Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)--1 hormone may contribute to the genesis of cognitive impairment and dementia in the elderly patients. Old age, in the absence of circulating IGF-1, a hormone with a complex role in brain function have linked IGF-1 to an acceleration of neurological diseases(f). Growth hormone and IGF-1 replacement showed to increase neurogenesis, vascular density, and glucose utilization, and alters NMDA receptor subunit composition in brain areas that are implicated in learning and memory, in animal (g)and children(h) studies.

8. Deficiency of cerebrospinal fluid melatonin
 Melatonin plays an essential role to carried in ventricular system via choroid plexus portals. In Alzheimer's disease, inadequate melatonin increases risk of the neuropathological changes due to hydroxyl radicals cause of damage mitochondria and initiated cascade of oxygen radicals(i).

9. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations
DHEA, a neurosteroid secreted by the adrenal cortex. is also a neurosteroid. The levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrationsare  decline in concentration with age(j).

10. Etc.


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References
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21790207
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20226390
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14584018
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12918012
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14584010
(f) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22503992
(g) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16024298
(h) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15478038
(i) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461164
(j) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19665809