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Wednesday, 31 December 2014

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - The Preventive Common Free Radical Scavengers

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system

                           Dementia



About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V.  Preventions
B. Antioxidants and Dementia 
B.3. Common Free Radical Scavengers 
1. Bilirubin
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group with a unique function in breaking down molecules into smaller units for releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine(263). As a cellular antioxidant, it may protect against diseases associated with oxidative stress, through mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels and activation of heme oxygenase(264) and revert to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, through antioxidant redox cycle in inhibition of the effects of mutagens when oxidized(265). A significant reduction of levels of bilirubin, has shown to associate to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)(266).

2. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria. The antioxidant has been under intense scrutiny studies for finding of their potential in modulated chronic disease risk and prevention of vitamin A deficiency(267). Plasma levels of HDL and carotenoids have shown to lower in patients with dementia related vascular disorders(268) and Alzheimer's disease(AD)(269).

Beta-Carotene, an organic compound is classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
 Beta-Carotene is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A(270) shown to inhibit cancer cell in experiment(271)(272). Its anti oxidative effects has shown to cover the main pathways for formation, transformation, and decay of free radicals(273), through  relation to the antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties(274). According to Yale University, the decreased non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood, including β-carotene showed a significant oxidative damage in the process of neurodegeneration(275).

3. Flavonoids
Flavonoid also known as Vitamin P and citrinare, is a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. The antioxidant has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. Vitamin C and flavonoids combination has shown to expressed wound healing in animal model(276).

Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants in inhibition of  cell growth, differentiation and development, and overexpressed in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc., probably through cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis(277). Intake of antioxidant flavonoids is associated  to the reduced  risk of incident dementia(278)and mild cognitive impairment(279).

Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy microbial(281) and cancerous cells(282)(283). Over produced NO, showed to  induce inflammation(280), flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite(284) which is found to induce mitochondrial dysfunction associated with PD progression(285) for prevention of the cause of inappropriate damage to blood and tissues(284).

4. Vitamin A, C, E
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurred in the form retinol is best known for its function in maintaining a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system(286). The vitamin also acts as an the major peroxyl radical scavenger role in biological lipid phases such as membranes or low-density lipoproteins (LDL)(291)(288), including incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with respiratory failure(290). Prevention of its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation(287), and enhancement of the productions of insulin pancreas(289).

b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside, presences in aqueous compartments (e.g. cytosol, plasma, and other body fluids)(292) plays an important role  in synthesis of collagen, carnitine, catecholamine and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine(293). As an water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By recycling vitamin E, vitamin C also helps to fight against forming of free radicals(294). By enhancing the immune system(295)(296), it promotes against the microbial and viral(298) and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation(297).
Vitamin C also is a free radical scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation(299).

c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds, including  both tocopherols and tocotrienols(300) discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. The viutamin beside is important in protecting muscle weakness(300), repairing damage tissues(302) caused by oxidation(303), and promoting blood clotting in healing wound(302), etc. It also is one of powerful antioxidant, moved into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation(301), inhibited free radicals chain reactions by curtailing them before they can start(304) and prevented or delayed cognitive decline  tested in clinical trials in both ageing population of and mild cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)(306), according to R & D Human Nutrition and Health(305).

5. Etc.

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References(263) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24151358
(264) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19754364
(265) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22438843
(266) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16534775
(267) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8621054
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(269) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24582848
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