Tuesday, 30 December 2014

(Preview) Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): The Preventive Metals Binding Proteins

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V.  Preventions
B. Antioxidants and Dementia 
B.2. Metals binding proteins 
1. Ceruloplasmin
Ceruloplasmin, the major copper-carrying protein in the blood plays a role in iron metabolism(227). Decreased level of ceruloplasmin impaired ferroportin stability(229)(230)may induce progressive action tremor, and cognitive decline(227), causing the forming of  superoxide anion radicals(231) and iron overload in the brain, liver, pancreas, and other organs(232).

2. Ferritin
Ferritin, the protein produced by almost all living organisms, acts as a component to fight against iron deficiency and iron overload(233)(234). In a soluble and non-toxic form, the protein is transported to the body needs, including organs(236) for enhancement of the immune system in the presence of an infection(237),  proliferation of lymphoid and myeloid cells(235), cancer(238) and prevention of the infectious agent in attempt of binding iron to form free radicals(239) in most cellular oxidation reactions(239).

3. Lactoferrin
Lactoferrin, a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family, is one of the components of the immune system(240) of the body by fighting against foreign invasion of bacteria and virus(241)(242) and lipid oxidation(243) by inhibiting oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner even at concentrations beyond its capacity(244).

4. Metallothionein
Metallothionein, a family of cysteine-rich(24), low molecular weight proteins binds both physiological heavy metals(245) through detoxified fraction of accumulation(245). It also captures harmful superoxide and hydroxyl radicals(246) by binding the metal ions(247)(248) bounded to cysteine(249).

5. Transferrin
Transferrin, a glycoprotein binded iron very tightly but reversibly, enhances the immune system in fighting against infection, inflammation(250) by creating an environment low in free iron(251) that impedes cell oxidation(253)(254), through rapidly evolving sites reverse to bacterial binding in counteract bacterial iron piracy(250). Transferrin deformation and aggregation are found to associate to neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease(252).

6. Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin, the protein molecule in red blood cells enhances the carrying of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and return CO2 from the tissues to the lungs(255)(256). During oxidate stress, the cell membrane is protected by intraerythrocytic hemoglobin from the forming of free radicals(259), probably through regulating NO(258) and auxin homeostasis(257).

7. Myoglobin
Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates. The binding of oxygen by myoglobin(260) through interaction with pathogens establishment of successful infection and survival  is probably through peroxidase activity(261), thus reducing the free radicals damage caused by oxidate stress(261)(262).

8. Etc.

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(227) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10930377
(228) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19769463
(229) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22634395
(230) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16673405
(231) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24090962
(232) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25280422
(233) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24814729
(224) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25501153
(225) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25511255 
(226) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25052430
(227) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25498860
(228) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464026
(229) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20655381
(230) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921009
(231) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6284006
(232) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25089372
(233) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4014070
(234) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6830706
(235) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18191543
(236) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17459943 
(237) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19428486
(238) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23891969
(239) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22155779
(240) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21847071
(241) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25282173
(242) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15222464
(243) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22304665
(244) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11052766
(245) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25528420
(246) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18561335
(247) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16872588
(248) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1342190
(249) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24493013
(250) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504720
(251) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12476940
(252) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22119572
(253) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7298642
(254) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7925932
(255) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23820271
(256) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12683610
(257) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24905914
(258) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815022
(259) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20003712
(260) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15756816
(260) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1575681
(261) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24885788
(262) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24885788

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