Tuesday, 16 December 2014

Premenstrual Syndrome(PMS): Causes of Migraine headache

By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Premenstrual syndrome effects over 70% to 90% of women before menopause in the US and less for women in Southeast Asia because of their difference in living style and social structure. It is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, it effects a women's physical and emotional state, and sometimes interferes with daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation. The syndrome occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period start.

Migraine headache are the most common symptoms of PMS(2), effected about 30%(1) of women just before or on the days of period. While headache does not accompany with symptoms, migraine usually followed by series of symptoms(3)(4), such as menstrual cramp and pain(4), bloating, fatigue, and irritability(3).

1. Serotonin
Serotonin secreted by the pituitary gland(5) when we come to stress(6) and during migraine attack effects the blood vessels in the brain(6), cause of  irritation to the nervous system, such as affective, cognitive, and behavioural symptoms(6) and migraine headache(7)(8) last for hours(8).

2. Allergic reaction
For what whatever reasons, some women with pre menstrual syndrome may be sensitive to food such as  fat, carbohydrate (P < 0.05) and simple sugars, etc. probably due to cyclical hormonal or neurotransmitter fluctuations(14). just before period cause of migraine headache(15).

3. Hormone imbalance
Levels of serotonin also showed to effect the production of reproductive hormones. Imbalance high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone, may cause a wide range of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, and eating disorders, along with other conditions such as obesity and migraine(10).

4. Medication
Some medication including psychostimulant drugs of abuse(9) and medication over uses(10)  such as bromocriptine used to reduce levels of prolactin(11) for women with breast pain(12) before period may cause headache and migraine(13).
5. Magnesium deficiency
Magnesium deficiency is found to be associated to patients with migraine headache(16).
Magnesium regulates the levels of blood sugar(17)(18), and stops the blood vessels spam, during migraine attack(19).
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(1) Perimenstrual headache: migraine without aura or premenstrual syndrome symptom? by Sundić A1, Zidverc-Trajković J, Vujović S, Sternić N.(PubMed)
(2) Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and their association with migraine headache by Martin VT1, Wernke S, Mandell K, Ramadan N, Kao L, Bean J, Liu J, Zoma W, Rebar R.(PubMed)
(3) Relief of menstrual symptoms and migraine with a single-tablet formulation of sumatriptan and naproxen sodium by Martin VT1, Ballard J, Diamond MP, Mannix LK, Derosier FJ, Lener SE, Krishen A, McDonald SA.(PubMed)
(4) Sumatriptan-naproxen sodium for menstrual migraine and dysmenorrhea: satisfaction, productivity, and functional disability outcomesby Cady RK1, Diamond ML, Diamond MP, Ballard JE, Lener ME, Dorner DP, Derosier FJ, McDonald SA, White J, Runken MC.(PubMed)
(5) Colocalization of dopamine and serotonin in the rat pituitary gland and in the nuclei innervating it by Vanhatalo S1, Soinila S, Kaartinen K, Bäck N.(PubMed)
(6) Stress, serotonin, and hippocampal neurogenesis in relation to depression and antidepressant effects by Mahar I1, Bambico FR2, Mechawar N3, Nobrega JN4.(PubMed)
(7) Serotonin receptor ligands: treatments of acute migraine and cluster headache by Goadsby PJ.(PubMed)
(8) Sumatriptan: a new serotonin agonist for the treatment of migraine headache by Susman JL.(PubMed)
(9) Brain serotonin, psychoactive drugs, and effects on reproduction by Ayala ME.(PubMed)
(10) Chronic migraine with medication overuse: Association between disability and quality of life measures, and impact of disease on patients' lives by Raggi A1, Schiavolin S2, Leonardi M2, Giovannetti AM2, Bussone G3, Curone M3, Di Fiore P3, Grazzi L3, Usai S3, D'Amico D3.(PubMed)
(11) Bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, increases growth hormone secretion in a patient with acromegaly by Arihara Z1, Sakurai K, Yamashita R, Niitsuma S, Ueno T, Yamamura N, Yamada S, Inoshita N, Takahashi K.(PubMed)
(12) Prevention of breast pain and milk secretion with bromocriptine after second-trimester abortion by Nyboe Andersen A1, Damm P, Tabor A, Pedersen IM, Harring M.(PubMed)
(13) http://www.patient.co.uk/medicine/Bromocriptine.htm
(14) Modest changes in dietary intake across the menstrual cycle: implications for food intake research by Bryant M1, Truesdale KP, Dye L.(PubMed)
(15) Atopic disorders are more common in childhood migraine and correlated headache phenotype by Ozge A1, Oksüz N, Ayta S, Uluduz D, Yıldırım V, Toros F, Taşdelen B.(PubMed)
(16) Magnesium in disease prevention and overall health by Volpe SL.(PubMed)
(17) SERUM magnesium levels as an indicator of status of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 by Ramadass S1, Basu S2, Srinivasan AR3.(PubMed)
(18) Effect of magnesium sulfate on blood sugar levels of diabetic children by Ozsoylu S.(PubMed)
(19) The preventive effect of magnesium on coronary spasm in patients with vasospastic angina by Teragawa H1, Kato M, Yamagata T, Matsuura H, Kajiyama G.(PubMed)
(20) Susceptibility-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance angiography during migraine attack: a case report by Shimoda Y1, Kudo K, Kuroda S, Zaitsu Y, Fujima N, Terae S, Sasaki M, Houkin K.(PubMed)

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