Friday, 18 July 2014

Phytochemical Indole-3-carbinol and Breast cancer

By Kyle J. Norton

Indole-3-carbinol is a phytochemical in the class of Indoles, by the breaking down of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin,  found abundantly in cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens, broccoli, etc.

Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer started in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. There is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

Indole-3-carbinol may act as NAG-1 modulators involved in natural products-induced NAG-1 transcriptional signaling pathway used in prevention and treatment of cancer(1). According to the University of Urbino "Carlo Bo",, The indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative (CTet) inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation by endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy-related cell death induction, AKT(2). In human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, the derivative also enhances ER stress response, as the main upstream molecular mechanism through which CTet acts in both hormone-responsive and triple-negative breast cancer cells(3). In support to the above, the study of University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino (PU),  showed that the derivative may also be a potential anticancer combination agent for both hormone-responsive and triple-negative breast tumors(4).
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(1) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) modulators from natural products as anti-cancer agents by Yang MH1, Kim J2, Khan IA3, Walker LA4, Khan SI5.(PubMed)
(2) The Indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet synergizes with cisplatin and doxorubicin in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines by De Santi M1, Galluzzi L, Duranti A, Magnani M, Brandi G.(PubMed)
(3) Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress response by the indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet in human breast cancer cell lines by Galluzzi L1, De Santi M, Crinelli R, De Marco C, Zaffaroni N, Duranti A, Brandi G, Magnani M(PubMed)
(4) Antitumoral activity of indole-3-carbinol cyclic tri- and tetrameric derivatives mixture in human breast cancer cells: in vitro and in vivo studies by Brandi G1, Fraternale A, Lucarini S, Paiardini M, De Santi M, Cervasi B, Paoletti MF, Galluzzi L, Duranti A, Magnani M.(PubMed).

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