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Saturday, 12 July 2014

Food therapy - Banana

By Kyle J. Norton

Banana Banana is the common name of a genus of tropical herbaceous plants. It can grow from 3 to 9 m and belongs to the family of the lily and the orchid.

Nutrients

1. Vitamin B6
2. Vitamin C
3. Fiber
4. Potassium
5. Magnesium
6. Iron7. Etc.

Chemical constituents
1. Sterols
2. 3-Methyl butyl butanoate ester
3. steryl esters
4. Diacylglycerols,
5. SAteryl glucosides,
6. Long chain fatty alcohols
7. Aromatic compounds
8. Linoleic acid
9. Linolenic acid
10. Oleic acids
11. Lectin
12. Fructooligosaccharides

Health benefits
1. Banana and constipation
Constipation is a condition of frequent and hard to pass in bowel movement. According to right diagnosis, approximately 30 percent of US population are experience of gastrointestinal complaint every year. chronic constipation (CC) study in adult Moscow population in a 1189 randomly selected subjects, showed statistical significant of 34.3% subjects affected by the disease, 16.5% had CC according to Rome III criteria. Female have significantly higher rate of 2 symptoms of constipation(1). Fructooligosaccharides, a chemical compound found abundantly in banana, in a study by University of Murcia, showed to increase fecal bolus and the frequency of depositions, with a dose of 4-15 g/day given to healthy subjects will reduce constipation(2).  Unfortunately, its seeds may induce constipation,(3) especially when they are consume in empty stomach, according to 1SFE Medical Project, Luang Namtha(4).

References
(1) [Prevalence and risk factors of constipation in the adult population of Moscow (according to population-based study MUSA)].[Article in Russian] by Lazebnik LB, Prilepskaia SI, Baryshnikov EN, Parfenov AI, Kosacheva TN.(PubMed)
(2) Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health by Sabater-Molina M1, Larqué E, Torrella F, Zamora S.(PubMed)
(3) Intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoars of banana seeds: a case report by choeffl V1, Varatorn R, Blinnikov O, Vidamaly V.(PubMed)
(4) Bowel obstruction from wild bananas: a neglected health problem in Laos by Slesak G1, Mounlaphome K, Inthalad S, Phoutsavath O, Mayxay M, Newton PN.(PubMed)

2. Banana and bacterial activity
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.

According to  the National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, hot water banana peel extract may be effective as bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator, through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae in prawns study(1). The combination of saba (Banana)starch with L. plantarum CIF17AN2 showed a statistically significant in inhibition against Sal. Typhimurium SA2093 in the simulated colon model(2). The study of banana peel efficacy in biosurfactant-producing bacteria, showed the peel may be used to obtain crude biosurfactant fora broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity(3).

References
(1) Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii by Rattanavichai W1, Cheng W. (PubMed)
(2) Antagonistic mechanisms of synbiosis between Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 and green banana starch in the proximal colon model challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium by Uraipan S1, Brigidi P2, Hongpattarakere T3.(PubMed)
(3) Utilization of banana peel as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65 by Chooklin CS1, Maneerat S, Saimmai A.(PubMed)

3. Banana and Diabetes
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.
According to the University College of Medical Sciences, India, Musa sapientum Linn (banana), has been used in India for the treatment of gastric ulcer, hypertension, diarrhea, dysentery, and diabetes. In rat study, the stem of lyophilized stem juice of M. sapientum Linn., showed to exhibits antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects.(1). In support of the aboce, the Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering study, suggested that ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) exert an anti-diabetic effect by inhibition of α-glucosidases from the intestine, in turn suppressing the carbohydrate absorption into the bloodstream(2). According to the Central Food Technological Research Institute, banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem showed to induce symptoms of hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats(3).

References
(1) Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of the stem of Musa sapientum Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Dikshit P1, Shukla K, Tyagi MK, Garg P, Gambhir JK, Shukla R.(PubMed)
(2) Investigation of antihyperglycaemic activity of banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud rasa bale) pseudostem in normal and diabetic rats by Ramu R1, Shirahatti PS, Zameer F, Nagendra Prasad MN.(PubMed).
(3) Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Bhaskar JJ1,

Shobha MS, Sambaiah K, Salimath PV.(PubMed)


4. Banana and antihyperlipidemic effects
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place. If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL that is known as bad cholesterol, overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls causing blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke.
The pulp of banana fruit (Musa sapientum L. var. Cavendishii) , including soluble and insoluble components of dietary fibre showed to exhibit anti hypocholesterolaemic effect with no affect the concentration of serum cholesterol(1). In support of the above, the University of Auckland study showed that resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars showed to have beneficial effects in disease prevention including modulation of glycaemic index diabetes, cholesterol lowering capability and weight management(2). Ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) (bananas and plantains), according to Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy contained ntioxidant and hypolipidaemic properties and may be used for treating diabetes mellitus(3).


References

(1) Hypocholesterolaemic effect of banana (Musa sapientum L. var. Cavendishii) pulp in the rat fed on a cholesterol-containing diet by Horigome T1, Sakaguchi E, Kishimoto C.(PubMed)
(2) Resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars offers health benefits by Thakorlal J1, Perera CO, Smith B, Englberger L, Lorens A.(PubMed)
(3) Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) in alloxan induced diabetic rats by Kaimal S1, Sujatha KS, George S.(PubMed)


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  5. Banana and gastric ulcer
Gastric ulcer, a type of peptic ulcer is defined as a condition of a localized tissue erosion in the lining the stomach.
Extract of Musa sapientum fruit (MSE) exhibit  antidiabetic and better ulcer healing effects ) in diabetic rat and could be more effective in diabetes with concurrent gastric ulcer, according to the Banaras Hindu University(1). The study of Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca (MSE, 100 mg/kg), showed to exert its ulcer protective through its predominant effect on mucosal glycoprotein, cell proliferation, free radicals and antioxidant systems(2). In Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers, active compound of Musa sapientum,  a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin) showed to promote anti-ulcerogenic activity(3).

References
(1) Healing effects of Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca in diabetic rats with co-occurring gastric ulcer: cytokines and growth factor by PCR amplification by Kumar M, Gautam MK, Singh A, Goel RK1.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals by Mohan Kumar M1, Joshi MC, Prabha T, Dorababu M, Goel RK.(PubMed)
(3) Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer. by Prabha P1, Karpagam T, Varalakshmi B, Packiavathy AS.(PubMed)


6. Banana and hypertension
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. High blood pressure means raising pressure in your heart.If it stays high over time it can damage the body in many ways.
Blood pressure medications have undoubtedly prevented many deaths from heart disease in the past 30 years, but they have many side effects such as damaging the kidney
Corosolic acid (CRA), a constituent of banaba leaves, according to the Mukogawa Women's University, showed to ameliorate hypertension, abnormal lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory state in a 14 weeks rat study(1). In healthy volunteers study, banana showed no significant changes in heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate but only significant decrease in plasma ACE activity. Banana treatment decreased the rise of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers subjected to cold stress test without much effect on heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate(2)

References
(1) Corosolic acid prevents oxidative stress, inflammation and hypertension in SHR/NDmcr-cp rats, a model of metabolic syndrome by Yamaguchi Y1, Yamada K, Yoshikawa N, Nakamura K, Haginaka J, Kunitomo M.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of banana on cold stress test & peak expiratory flow rate in healthy volunteers by Sarkar C1, Bairy KL, Rao NM, Udupa EG.(PubMed)


7.  Banana and diarrhea
Diarrhea is a condition of frequent  bowel movements with three loose or liquid each day. prolong period of diarrhea may result in dehydration due to fluid loss.
Banana flakes, according to the 1Pennsylvania Hospital, can be used as a safe, cost-effective treatment for diarrhea in critically ill tube-fed patients. Banana flakes can be given concurrently with a workup for C. difficile colitis, thereby expediting treatment of diarrhea.(1). Green banana or its chemical compound pectin in the study of Bangladeshi children showed to benefit in management of persistent diarrhea in hospitalized children and may also be useful to treat children at home(2). In support to the above, the Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, insisted that green plantain showed to be effective in dietary management of persistent diarrhea, in a prospective, in-hospital controlled trial, two different treatments were administered to a sample of 80 children of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 28 months(3).

References
(1) Banana flakes control diarrhea in enterally fed patients by Emery EA1, Ahmad S, Koethe JD, Skipper A, Perlmutter S, Paskin DL.(PubMed)
(2) Clinical studies in persistent diarrhea: dietary management with green banana or pectin in Bangladeshi children by Rabbani GH1, Teka T, Zaman B, Majid N, Khatun M, Fuchs GJ.(PubMed)
(3) Beneficial role of green plantain [Musa paradisiaca] in the management of persistent diarrhea: a prospective randomized trial by Alvarez-Acosta T1, León C, Acosta-González S, Parra-Soto H, Cluet-Rodriguez I, Rossell MR, Colina-Chourio JA.(PubMed)

8. Banana as antioxidants
BHT and water extracts of banana showed to exhibit its natural antioxidants  in preservation of raw poultry meat and meat products, according to Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology(1). In the comparison of 4 different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol antioxidant effect, researchers at the King Saud University, suggested that Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species(2).

References
(1) Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat by Devatkal SK, Kumboj R, Paul D.(PubMed)
(2) Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection by Karuppiah P1, Mustaffa M.(PubMed)


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