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Sunday, 27 July 2014
Papaya and Diabetes
People with Type II Diabetes may be thinking to add whole food papaya into their diet. the recent study suggested(1) ,
The finding not only showed the effectiveness of unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya) in inhibition α-amylase, α-glucosidase, but also induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner, in rat pancreas(1).
The key enzymes of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, involved in the digestion of carbohydrates, have been linked to onset of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of these enzymes can significantly reduce the post-prandial increase of blood glucose and have been considered by therapists in use for management of blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic and borderline patients(2).
In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats study, the aqueous extract of leaves of C. papaya administered strongly controlled blood glucose levels(3), through prevention of hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids via its hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect(4)
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.
In a new study, conducted by the researchers at the Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, fermented papaya preparation was tested whether it improves dermal wound healing outcomes in adult diabetic mice by preventing the risk of infections(5).
The result was astonishing, the fermentation not only up regulated the Sp1 DNA binding activity(modulating the cellular response to DNA damage) in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but also the protein and mRNA expression of Rac2(regulates a number of cellular functions)(5).
A randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at the Cardiac Centre, ANDI Centre of Excellence for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research and Department of Biosciences University of Mauritius, showed that oral administration of 6g FPP®/day for a period of 14 weeks could improve the general health status of several organs targeted by oxidative stress during diabetes and suggested that the supplement may be used in the management the complications of diabetes such as cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and other conditions worsened by overt inflammation and oxidative stress(6).
Taken altogether, unripe, fermented papaya and its' leaves may be effective in diabetic management through controlling the levels of glucose and reduced risk of complications.
Some Western researchers insisted that large sample size and multi center studies are necessary to validate its effectiveness by identifying the ingredients which are comparable to recently pharmaceutical medicine in use because geography, environment, time of harvest, etc. may influence the concentration of the food cultivation.
In fact, herbalists have longly acknowledged that the external factors (mentioned above) may alter the quality of the herbs and foods by classifying these difference either through price or formula differentiation. In deed, the effectiveness with little or no adverse side effects of the formula is not the concentration of individual herb and a herb itself but the interaction of all ingredients in a herb and herbs in the same formula. Extracting only one ingredient of the herb for treatment of certain diseases may be effective but enhanced complicative consequences. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying.
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(1) Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water-extractable phytochemicals from unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya) by Oboh G, Olabiyi AA, Akinyemi AJ, Ademiluyi AO.(PubMed)
(2) Natural products as alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and their hypoglycaemic potential in the treatment of diabetes: an update by Tundis R1, Loizzo MR, Menichini F.(PubMed)
(3) Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by Maniyar Y, Bhixavatimath P.(PubMed)
(4) Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Juárez-Rojop IE1, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Ble-Castillo JL, Miranda-Osorio PH, Castell-Rodríguez AE, Tovilla-Zárate CA, Rodríguez-Hernández A, Aguilar-Mariscal H, Ramón-Frías T, Bermúdez-Ocaña DY.(PubMed)
(5) Correction of aberrant NADPH oxidase activity in blood-derived mononuclear cells from type II diabetes mellitus patients by a naturally fermented papaya preparation by Dickerson R1, Deshpande B, Gnyawali U, Lynch D, Gordillo GM, Schuster D, Osei K, Roy S.(PubMed)
(6) Effects of a short term supplementation of a fermented papaya preparation on biomarkers of diabetes mellitus in a randomized Mauritian population by Somanah J1, Aruoma OI, Gunness TK, Kowelssur S, Dambala V, Murad F, Googoolye K, Daus D, Indelicato J, Bourdon E, Bahorun T.(PubMed)