4. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
5. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
6. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
7. Pantothenic acid (B5)
8. Vitamin B6
9. Folate (Vitamin B9)
10. Vitamin C
4. Sorbic acid,
9. Linoleic acid
10. Oleic acid
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
The comparison of commercial essential oils (EO) containing Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Cupressus sempervirens, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris showed that F. vulgare EOs is effective against lipid peroxidation(3). In support of the above, the University of Wyoming suggested that Fennel oils might have higher antioxidant capacity in distillation time (DT) depend-manner. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition(4).
Some researchers suggested that the potent antioxidant properties of medicinal plants may depend on variety conditions such as environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing(5).
(1) Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico.by Esquivel-Ferriño PC1, Favela-Hernández JM, Garza-González E, Waksman N, Ríos MY, del Rayo Camacho-Corona M.(PubMed)
(2) Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars by Shahat AA1, Ibrahim AY, Hendawy SF, Omer EA, Hammouda FM, Abdel-Rahman FH, Saleh MA.(PubMed)
(3) Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial essential oils by Aazza S, Lyoussi B, Megías C, Cortés-Giraldo I, Vioque J, Figueiredo AC, Miguel MG.(PubMed)(4) Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) by Zheljazkov VD1, Horgan T, Astatkie T, Schlegel V.(PubMed)
(5) Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.
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