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Monday, 28 July 2014

Hormone Adionection - The risk of Obesity and Complications

By Kyle J. Norton

Recent study from the renowned institutions suggested that protein Adiponectin may be associated to risk of obesity. Adionection is a protein with function involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. Therefore, it plays a causative role in the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, through probably mediated the metabolic effects of FGF21, a metabolic hormone, on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity(1a).

Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese. 

In a study of all the fourth-grade school children (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina during 2005-2008 (N = 1675), Japan, lower levels of adiponectin complexes were associated to in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group regardless of sex. In fact the impact of abdominal obesity was larger in boys than in girls(1).

Indeed, the alternation and mutation of adiponectin gene were also found to contribute to the genetic risk towards the development of  obesity, in the south Indian population study by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation-ICMR Advanced Centre for Genomics of Type 2 Diabetes and Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre(2).

But in the study of calorie-restricted low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets (LFD and LCD among overweight and obese premenopausal women, researchers suggested that in these diet patterns serum leptin, but not adiponectin is found to effect on obesity's complications(3). In support of the above, the West China Medical School study showed that Leptin, the product of the obese gene, is an adipocyte-secreted protein hormone playing a key role in the progression of obesity(4)

The Russian study indicated the evaluation of metabolic disorders and adipokine synthesis in obese patients may optimize the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases and to personalize diet therapy(5).

Adiponectin receptor 1 agonists, matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine, may be potential drug-candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases, such as obesity(6)

Taken altogether, adipokine  synthesis is associated to risk of obesity, but the question of low level of adiponectin induces obesity or obesity causes lower levels of adiponectin remains largely unknown. Leptin, another member of adipokine  may be used as biomarker in management of the progression of the disease and its complications. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying
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References
(1a) Adiponectin mediates the metabolic effects of FGF21 on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in mice by Lin Z1, Tian H, Lam KS, Lin S, Hoo RC, Konishi M, Itoh N, Wang Y, Bornstein SR, Xu A, Li X.(PubMed)

(1) Abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan: a cross-sectional study by Ochiai H1, Shirasawa T, Nishimura R, Nanri H, Ohtsu T, Hoshino H, Tajima N, Kokaze A.(PubMed)
(2) Genetic association of ADIPOQ gene variants with type 2 diabetes, obesity and serum adiponectin levels in south Indian population by Ramya K1, Ayyappa KA, Ghosh S, Mohan V, Radha V.(PubMed)
(3) Favorable effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate dietary patterns on serum leptin, but not adiponectin, among overweight and obese premenopausal women: a randomized trial by Llanos AA1, Krok JL2, Peng J3, Pennell ML3, Olivo-Marston S1, Vitolins MZ3, Degraffinreid CR2, Paskett ED(PubMed)
(4) Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel urea- and guanidine-based derivatives for the treatment of obesity-related hepatic steatosis by Liang X1, Pei H2, Ma L3, Ran Y4, Chen J5, Wang G6, Chen L5.(PubMed)
(5) [Adipokines and the metabolism of key nutrients in patients with obesity].

[Article in Russian] by Kirillova OO, Vorozhko IV, Gapparova KM, Chekhonina IuG, Sentsova TB, Tutel'ian VA.(PubMed)
(6) Identification of adiponectin receptor agonist utilizing a fluorescence polarization based high throughput assay by Sun Y1, Zang Z, Zhong L, Wu M, Su Q, Gao X, Zan W, Lin D, Zhao Y, Zhang Z.(PubMed)