Monday, 4 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Raspberry Leaf


Raspberries are perennial, the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus belonging to the family Rosaceae, originated from Europe. Raspberry Leaf has been used in traditional medicine as pain reliever and to aid fertility, promote production of breastmilk, stop excess bleeding after birth, treat morning sickness, enhance muscle relaxation, regulate menses, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Induced labor
In the investigation of the direct effects of various commercially available preparations of red raspberry leaf (RRL) on the in vitro contractility of uteri collected from diethylstilbestrol (DES)-treated nonpregnant (NP) and late pregnant rats, found that in pregnant animals red raspberry leaf tea had variable effects on preexisting oxytocin-induced contractions, sometimes augmenting oxytocin's effect and sometimes causing augmentation followed by inhibition. We conclude that the biological activity of RRL varies depending on the herbal preparation used and pregnancy status, according to "The effects of commercial preparations of red raspberry leaf on the contractility of the rat's uterus in vitro" by Jing Zheng, Pistilli MJ, Holloway AC, Crankshaw DJ.(1)

2. Microbial oral diseases
In the identification of the positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer), found that water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens), according to "Plant and fungal food components with potential activity on the development of microbial oral diseases" by Daglia M, Papetti A, Mascherpa D, Grisoli P, Giusto G, Lingström P, Pratten J, Signoretto C, Spratt DA, Wilson M, Zaura E, Gazzani G.(2)

3. Relaxant activity
In the evaluation of extracts of dried raspberry leaves prepared with different solvents, (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol) were tested in vitro for relaxant activity on transmurally stimulated guinea-pig ileum found that The fractions eluted with chloroform (CHCl(3)) lacked relaxant activity. Samples eluted with CHCl(3)/MeOH (95:5) had moderate relaxant activity, while a second distinctive peak of activity eluted with a more polar solvent mixture (CHCl(3)/MeOH 50:50) provided strong dose dependent responses. Evidence was obtained that there are at least two components of raspberry leaf extract which exhibit relaxant activity in an in vitro gastrointestinal preparation, according to "Relaxant activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaf extract in guinea-pig ileum in vitro" by Rojas-Vera J, Patel AV, Dacke CG.(3)

4. Antibacterial activity
In the assessment of the antimicrobial properties of raspberry juice cordial, raspberry juice, raspberry leaf extract found that Raspberry cordial and juice were found to significantly reduce the growth of several species of bacteria, including Salmonella, Shigella and E. coli, but demonstrated no antifungal activity. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the leaf extract or tea, according to "Antibacterial activity of raspberry cordial in vitro" by Ryan T, Wilkinson JM, Cavanagh HM.(4)

5. Laryngeal Carcinoma and Colon Adenocarcinoma
In the determination of the polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract and its Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect found that The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects, according to "The Bioactive Potential of Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Leaves in Exhibiting Cytotoxic and Cytoprotective Activity on Human Laryngeal Carcinoma and Colon Adenocarcinoma" by Durgo K, Bel Ak-Cvitanovi A, Stan I A, Franeki J, Komes DE.(5)

6. Pancreatic cancer
In the investigation of the efficacy of bioactive phytochemicals in inhibiting radiotherapy (RT)-induced NF-κB activity, signaling, and NF-κB-dependent regulation of cell death.
found that CUR, NLE, and RSE may serve as effective "deliverables" to potentiate RT in PC cure and further throw light that these phytochemicals-induced cell killing may involve selective regulation of RT-induced NF-κB, according to "Impact of curcumin, raspberry extract, and neem leaf extract on rel protein-regulated cell death/radiosensitization in pancreatic cancer cells" by Veeraraghavan J, Natarajan M, Lagisetty P, Awasthi V, Herman TS, Aravindan N.(6)

7. Radical scavenging activity
In the study of the extract of Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves and their antioxidant activity (AA) found that All extracts were active, with radical scavenging capacity at the used concentrations from 20.5 to 82.5% in DPPH(.) reaction system and from 8.0 to 42.7% in ABTS(.)(+) reaction. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the leaves varied from 4.8 to 12.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in 1 g of plant extract. Quercetin glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and rutin were identified in the extracts, according to "Radical scavenging activity and composition of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves from different locations in Lithuania" by Venskutonis PR, Dvaranauskaite A, Labokas J.(7)

8. Antileukaemic activity
In the determination the antileukaemic activity of extracts obtained from selected berry plant leaves (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv Elsanta, raspberry Rubus ideus L. cv Polana and blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Bluecrop) against promyelocytic HL60 cell line, found that strawberry and raspberry extracts exhibited the high cytotoxic activity against sensitive leukaemia HL60 cell line as well as its MDR sublines. The values of resistance factor (RF) found for these extracts were very low lying in the range 0.32/2.0, according to "In vitro antileukaemic activity of extracts from berry plant leaves against sensitive and multidrug resistant HL60 cells" by Skupień K, Oszmiański J, Kostrzewa-Nowak D, Tarasiuk J.(8)

9. Antioxidant activity
In the investigation of Fruits and leaves from different cultivars of thornless blackberry (Rubus sp.), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa D.) plants and theirsl antioxidant capacity
found that a linear correlation between total phenolic content and ORAC activity for fruits and leaves. Jewel black raspberry and blackberries may be the richest source for antioxidants. On the basis of the dry weight of fruit, strawberries had the highest ORAC activity followed by black raspberries (cv. Jewel), blackberries, and red raspberries, according to "Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage" by Wang SY, Lin HS.(9)

10. Etc.

Side effects
1. Raspberry may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, including abdominal cramping and diarrhea.
2. The herb may cause allergic effect to certain people
3. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant without approval from the related field specialist as Raspberry leaf use during pregnancy was associated with increased gestation length and accelerated reproductive development in the F1 offspring(a)
4. Etc.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19276407
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20220111
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22013381
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12410549
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11798288
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22082102
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21697760
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17215088
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16039042
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10691606

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