Friday, 29 November 2013

Encephalitis - The Symptoms

Encephalitis is defined as a condition of irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, as a result of virus, bacteria and others invasion.

Symptoms of Encephalitis are not limit to
1. Headache
In the study to evaluate 43 participants identified with earlier intracranial infection, whereof three had more than one infection: bacterial meningitis (n=19), lymphocytic meningitis (n=18), encephalitis (n=9), and brain abscess (n=1).The mean interval from infection to participation in HUNT 3 was 11.2 (range 1.5-19.7) years. There was no significant increase in the prevalence of headache (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.58-2.07), its subtypes (migraine, or tension-type headache), or chronic daily headache (OR 1.85, 95% CI 0.45-7.68) amongst participants with previous intracranial infection compared with the surrounding population.(1)

2. Fever
West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is a mosquito-borne virus first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda. According to the study of National Institute of Infectious Diseases, WN encephalitis was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in the summer of 1999, there was an outbreak in New York City. Epidemic WNV strains in North America are severely pathogenic, however, attenuated WNV strains were found in Texas and Mexico in 2003. The principal vectors of WNV transmission in North America are Culex. pipiens, Cx. Quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx salinarius and Cx talsalis. The number of WN fever case has exceeded 27,000 since 1999 in the United States and 4,600 since 2002 in Canada. The first imported case of West Nile fever in Japan was confirmed in September, 2005(2).

3. Confusion
There is report that a seventy-five-year-old patient was hospitalized because of relapsing feverish confusion episodes with meningitis. During the year before his admission he had experienced four spontaneously regressive episodes of feverish confusion. Exploration of these episodes disclosed a paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis due to an underlying Hodgkin's disease.(3)

4. Drowsiness
In the information collected on 5 previously healthy patients (2 boys and 3 girls, aged 10-15 years) with 2009 H1N1 influenza who presented with late onset (>3 days after fever) and long-standing (>48 hours) delirious behavior. Each exhibited mild to moderate drowsiness between the episodes of delirious behavior, in the report of Kameda Medical Center(4)

5. Fatigue
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is about 2 to 4 times more common in women than in men. It is associated with extreme and prolonged fatigue that isn't relieved by rest(5)

6. Others symptoms
In the study to investigate Lyme borreliosis, a multisystem disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and its effects conducted by Zagreb University Hospital Centre, Dr Markeljević J, and the team of scientist showed that neurological symptoms such as lymphocytic meningoradiculoneuritis (Bannwart's syndrome), cranial neuritis (II,III,IV,V,VI), encephalitis, transverse myelitis are found in about 10% of cases during the second phase of the disease. In the chronic stage, many months or years after the initial infection, other neurologic complications may occur, such as encephalomyelitis, epileptic crises, cognitive impairment, peripheral neuropathy and psychiatric disturbances such as depression, anxiety, panicc attacks, catatonia, psychosis etc. Some patient continue to experience symptoms of fatigue, insomnia or psychiatric disorder in the post borrelia syndrome. We describe here a patient with a triad of unusual symptoms in chronic LNB including tremor, seizures and psychosis. Standardized medical interview, neurologic examination, neuroimaging, serum and CSF serology as well as EEG and EMNG evaluation were performed(6).

7. Etc.

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