Saturday, 30 November 2013

Neuralgia Treatments In Herbal medicine perspective

Neuralgia is defined as a condition of a sudden and heavy attacks of pain that follows the path of a nerve or nerves as a result of a change in neurological structure or function due to irritation or damage to the nerves without stimulating pain receptor (nociceptor) cells. the disease affects about 2%–3% of the population.
In herbal medicine perspective
The aim of herbal medicine is to enhance the body immune system in fighting off the invasion of viral and bacterial causes of neuralgia.

1. Black Cohosh 
Black Cohosh is a herbaceous perennial plant, genus Actaea, belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, native to eastern North America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as analgesic, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue anti-inflammatory agent and to treat rheumatism, symptoms of menopause, uterine cramps and muscle pain, etc.. Native Americans have used the root of the herb to treat snake bite.
a. Antioxidants
Polyphenols in Black cohosh may be considered as an antioxidant which help to fight against the forming of free radicals cause of DNA damage and guarding our body against foreign invasion such as bacteria and virus, according to the study of "Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) protects against menadione-induced DNA damage through scavenging of reactive oxygen species: bioassay-directed isolation and characterization of active principles" by Burdette JE, Chen SN, Lu ZZ, Xu H, White BE, Fabricant DS, Liu J, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI, Van Breemen RB, Pezzuto JM, Bolton JL., posted in PubMed(65)

b. Anti-inflammation
Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh)have exerted inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide production by reducing iNOS expression without affecting activity of the enzyme, according to the study of "Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh) extracts in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages" by Schmid D, Gruber M, Woehs F, Prinz S, Etzlstorfer B, Prucker C, Fuzzati N, Kopp B, Moeslinger T., posted in PubMed(66)

2. Peppermint
Peppermint is a hybrid mint with small purple or white flowers and downy leaves, in the genus Mentha, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to to Europe. The herb has been used in folk medicine as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, decongestant, agent and to relieve gas, nausea, and stomach pain due to an irritable bowel, intestinal cramps, or indigestion, infecttion, etc.
a. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities
In the observation of the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L., found that The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica, according to "Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils" by Mimica-Dukić N, Bozin B, Soković M, Mihajlović B, Matavulj M.(67)

b. Antispasmodic effect
In the investigation of Hyperperistalsis during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
found that the effectiveness of peppermint oil administration to the gastric mucosa resulted in inhibiting the gastric peristalsis in Japanese individuals undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, according to "[Peppermint oil reduces gastric motility during the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy]. [Article in Japanese]" by Hiki N.(68)

c. Neurodegenerative diseases
In the analyzing the efficacy of peppermint oil in enhancing the bioavailability of intranasally administered neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF), found that intranasal administration of NGF formulation with 0.5% PO enhanced the bioavailability by approximately 8 fold compared to rats administered with NGF alone. The bioavailability of NGF in the brain could be enhanced by intranasal administration of peppermint oil, according to 'Enhancement of nose-brain delivery of therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases using peppermint oil" by Vaka SR, Murthy SN.(69)

3. Garlic
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the Plague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc.
a. Antifungal antitumor cytotoxicity and blood coagulability effects
In the identification of organosulfur compounds and theirs effects on cardiovascular diseases found that in vitro antifungal antitumor cytotoxicity and blood coagulability effects of steroid saponins from garlic and related Allium species are provided. Animal studies on the cholesterol-lowering effects of the saponin fractions from garlic are also summarized, according to "Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular disease" by .Matsuura H(70)

b.  Antioxidant effects
In the study of the Extracts of aged fresh garlic that are aged over a prolonged period and its antioxidant effects found that the ability of AGE to protect against oxidant-induced disease, acute damage from aging, radiation and chemical exposure, and long-term toxic damage. Although additional observations are warranted in humans, compelling evidence supports the beneficial health effects attributed to AGE, i.e., reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer and aging, including the oxidant-mediated brain cell damage that is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, according to "Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract" by

Borek C.(71)
4.  Muira Puama
Muira Puama is a flowering plants in the genus of Ptychopetalum in thefamily Olacaceae, native to the Amazon rainforest.The herb has been used in traditional medicine to enhance sexual desire, erectile function and to treat dysentery, rheumatism nervous tension, depression, etc.
a. Anti-stress effects
In the investigation of Marapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham, PO and its anti-stress properties found that Ptychopetalum olacoides (Marapuama) might possess adaptogen-like properties, according to "Anti-stress effects of the "tonic"Ptychopetalum olacoides (Marapuama) in mice" by Piato AL, Detanico BC, Linck VM, Herrmann AP, Nunes DS, Elisabetsky E.(72)

b. Antioxidant activities
In the identification of of PO ethanol extract (POEE) free-radical scavenging properties in vitro, found that POEE administration reduced free-radical production in the hypothalamus, lead to significant decrease in lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hypothalamus, as well as in the carbonyl content in cerebellum and striatum. In terms of antioxidant enzymes, catalase activity was increased in the cortex, striatum, cerebellum and hippocampus, while glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in the hippocampus and concluded that POEE contains compounds able to improve the cellular antioxidant network efficacy in the brain, ultimately reducing the damage caused by oxidative stress, according to "Antioxidant activities of Ptychopetalum olacoides ("muirapuama") in mice brain" by Siqueira IR, Fochesatto C, Torres IL, da Silva AL, Nunes DS, Elisabetsky E, Netto CA.(73)

5. Parsley
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a biennial flowering plant, genus Petroselinum, belonging to the family Apiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as diuretic agent, and to release spasms, reduce inflammation, clear toxins, enhance the digestion and stimulate uterus, regulate menstrual cycle, treat edema, etc.
a. Antioxidants
In the investigation of Antioxidant activities of the total phenolics and HPLC analyses of the phenolic compounds of extracts from common Mediterranean plants, found that the antioxidant activities were evaluated according to the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenger method. Sage (Salvia officinalis) showed the highest antioxidant activity (91%), while the lowest (11.3%) was seen in parsley (Petroselinum crispum). A strong correlation (r = 0.85) between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was found, according to "Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and HPLC analyses of the phenolic compounds of extracts from common Mediterranean plants" by Rababah TM, Ereifej KI, Esoh RB, Al-u'datt MH, Alrababah MA, Yang W.(74)

b.  Immunomodulatory effect
In the determination of the suppressive effects of parsley essential oil on mouse splenocytes and macrophages cells, found that parsley essential oil may be able to suppress the cellular and humoral immune response. It can also suppress both NO production and the functions of macrophages as the main innate immune cells. These results may suggest that parsley essential oil is a proper suppressant for different applications, according to "Immunomodulatory effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil on immune cells: Mitogen-activated splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages" by Yousofi A, Daneshmandi S, Soleimani N, Bagheri K, Karimi MH.(75)

c. Antimicrobial effects
In the study of the effect of cayenne, green pepper, parsley, and dill to Kareish cheese and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these plant materials against natural microflora, coliforms, molds, and Staphylococcus aureus, found that kareish cheese prepared with 1% cayenne pepper and 3% and 6% each of green pepper, dill, and parsley were found strongly acceptable to the consumer and considered the most preferable type. Therefore, this study revealed that pepper, parsley, and dill exhibited antibacterial activity against natural microflora, coliforms, yeast and molds, and S. aureus in Kareish cheese, and the addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and may contribute to the development of new and safe varieties of Kareish cheese, according to "Antimicrobial effects of pepper, parsley, and dill and their roles in the microbiological quality enhancement of traditional Egyptian Kareish cheese" by Wahba NM, Ahmed AS, Ebraheim ZZ.(76)

6. Etc.
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