Friday, 29 November 2013

Thyroid Disease : Silent thyroiditis – The Diseases associated to

Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is under active and produces very little thyroid hormones. Thyroid cancer is defined as condition in which the cells in the thyroid gland have become cancerous.
Silent thyroiditis
Silent thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. Patients with silent thyroiditis are experience back and forth between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The disease classically present with a triphasic course: a brief period of thyrotoxicosis due to release of preformed thyroid hormone that lasts for 1 to 3 months, followed by a more prolonged hypothyroid phase lasting up to 6 months, and eventual return to a euthyroid state. However, the types and degree of thyroid dysfunction are variable in these disorders, and individual patients may present with mild or more severe cases of thyrotoxicosis alone, hypothyroidism alone, or both types of thyroid dysfunction(a).
C.2. Diseases associated to Silent thyroiditis
1. Rheumatoid arthritis
There is a report of a 41-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis had nontender enlarged thyroid gland. Thyroid function tests revealed increased concentrations of serum free T3 (FT3, 10.8 pmol/L) and free T4 (FT4, 31.1 pmol/L) with suppressed concentration of thyrotropin (TSH, lower than 0.1 mU/L) and low 24-hour thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (1.6%). Serum thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) was negative (0%) and she had positive anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibodies(29).
2. Graves’ disease
There is a report of a patient who developed silent thyroiditis during the course of Graves’ disease, according to the study by the Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Saitama Medical School(30).
Other study indicated that Silent thyroiditis (ST) and Graves’ disease (GD) are two clinical entities belonging to the wide spectrum of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). The two diseases are closely linked because sequential development of GD followed by ST, or the reverse course of events(31).
3. Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS)
There is a report of a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) who had increased serum T3 (235 ng/dl) and T4 (13.2 micrograms/dl) and low 24-h thyroidal 123I-uptake (1.2%). A diagnosis of silent thyroiditis was made on the basis of the clinical course and laboratory and histopathologic findings(32).
4. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (I.T.P.)
There is a report of a 51-year-old woman had symptoms of thyrotoxicosis which disappeared spontaneously within two months. She was diagnosed as a case of silent thyroiditis on the basis of both the clinical course and the laboratory data such as low uptake of radioactive iodine and technesium. She also had petechiae in her arms which were diagnosed as an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (I.T.P.)(33).
5. Thymoma
Thymoma often accompanies an autoimmune disease as a paraneoplastic syndrome, and an immunological mechanism is thought to be involved in the onset of silent thyroiditis(34).
6. Chronic adrenocortical insufficiency
There is report of a case of a 23-year-old woman had silent thyrotoxic thyroiditis and chronic adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison’s disease)(35).
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