Saturday, 30 November 2013

Vertigo - The Phytochemicals against Vertigo

Vertigo is defined as a condition of dizziness of feeling of spinning, or swaying when one is stationary. Dizziness is a general, non-specific term to indicate a sense of disorientation. Some researchers suggested that vertigo is a subtype of dizziness and refers to an erroneous perception of self- or object-motion or an unpleasant distortion of static gravitational orientation that is a result of a mismatch between vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems, affecting approximately 20-30% of the general population(1) and about two to three times higher in women than in men.
Phytochemicals against vertigo
1. Rutin also known as rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin is a Flavonols, belong to Flavonoids (polyphenols) of Phenolic compounds found orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime, berries mulberry, cranberries, buckwheat etc.
a. Anti-inflammatory activity
In the investigation of Rutin, a natural flavone derivative and its anti inflammatory effect found that Oral administration of rutin reduced rat paw swelling starting 2 hours after lambda-carrageenan injection. Rutin reduced significantly (p < 0.05) and in a dose-dependant manner the polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe, according to the study of "Anti-inflammatory effect of rutin on rat paw oedema, and on neutrophils chemotaxis and degranulation" by Selloum L, Bouriche H, Tigrine C, Boudoukha C.(19)

b.  Diabetes-increased aging effect
In the observation of 1 rutin, an aldose reductase inhibitor and irs effect on products from the advanced Maillard reaction which increase during aging and diabetes found that even though rutin prevent the accumulation of fluorescence are unknown, but these observations raise the question of whether they could be identical. If fluorescence is a marker for age-related pathologies and diabetic sequelae, aminoguanidine and rutin could have therapeutic effects in their prevention, according to "Prevention of diabetes-increased aging effect on rat collagen-linked fluorescence by aminoguanidine and rutin" by Odetti PR, Borgoglio A, De Pascale A, Rolandi R, Adezati L.(20)

c. Diabetes, Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia
In the analyzing Dietary antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids and its protection against early-stage diabetes mellitus, found that Rutin (50 mg kg(-1)) reduced (p<0.05) blood glucose and improved the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats and concluded that that rutin can improve hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia while inhibiting the progression of liver and heart dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats, acccording to "Influence of rutin treatment on biochemical alterations in experimental diabetes" by Fernandes AA, Novelli EL, Okoshi K, Okoshi MP, Di Muzio BP, Guimarães JF, Fernandes Junior A.(21)

d. Fatty liver disease
In evaluation of rutin, a common dietary flavonoid and the hypolipidemic effect of it on fatty liver disease found that rutin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocyte, according to "Rutin inhibits oleic acid induced lipid accumulation via reducing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocarcinoma cells" by Wu CH, Lin MC, Wang HC, Yang MY, Jou MJ, Wang CJ.(22)

e. Cardiovascular health
In the testing the hypothesis of the consumption of a diet rich in flavonoids can be associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease found that hamster fed with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+CE); a HFHC with 0.1% rutin (HFHC+Rutin); and a HFHC with 30 mg/kg vitamin E (HFHC+Vit.E) diet for either 12 or 20 weeks, found that Ratios of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and of plasma HDL-C to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in animals consuming HFHC+Vit.E, according to the strudy of "Effects of a flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Golden Syrian hamster model" by Kalgaonkar S, Gross HB, Yokoyama W, Keen CL.(23)

f.  Periodontal disease
In the study of isolation from the mouths of 2 healthy subjects, hydrolysed innocuous rutin, a flavonoid glycoside, to its genotoxic aglycon quercetin and its effect on local carcinogenic process found that a hypothesis for a novel role of the oral microflora in a disease process other than caries and periodontal disease, namely intra-oral cancer, is presented. The possibility of a bacterial liberation of the genotoxic quercetin in situ could be but one example of its involvement in the local carcinogenic process, according to "Activation of rutin by human oral bacterial isolates to the carcinogen-mutagen quercetin" by Parisis DM, Pritchard ET.(24)

2. Naringenin, a flavanone, belonging to the red, blue, purple pigments of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found predominantly in citrus fruits is considered as one of powerful antioxiant with many health benefits.
a. Antioxidant, radical scavenging and biomolecule activity
In the affirmation of the capacity of flavonoid naringenin and its glycoside naringin in the comparison of theirs antioxidant capacities, radical scavenging and biomolecule activities found that naringenin exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger efficiency than naringin and both flavanones were equally effective in reducing DNA damage. However, they show no protective effect on oxidation of GSH, according to the study of "Antioxidant properties, radical scavenging activity and biomolecule protection capacity of flavonoid naringenin and its glycoside naringin: a comparative study" by Cavia-Saiz M, Busto MD, Pilar-Izquierdo MC, Ortega N, Perez-Mateos M, Muñiz P.(25)

c. Cholesterol-lowering activity
In the affirmation of naringenin and its Cholesterol-lowering effect found that naringenin lowers the plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations by suppressing HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, according to "Cholesterol-lowering activity of naringenin via inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase in rats" by Lee SH, Park YB, Bae KH, Bok SH, Kwon YK, Lee ES, Choi MS.(26)

d. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of the mechanisms of action of the effective compounds. Flavone, the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, the flavonols isorhamnetin, kaempferol and quercetin, the flavanone naringenin, and the anthocyanin pelargonidin amd theirs anti-inflammatory effects found that they inhibited iNOS protein and mRNA expression and also NO production in a dose-dependent manner, according to "Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids: genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein inhibit STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activations, whereas flavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, and pelargonidin inhibit only NF-kappaB activation along with their inhibitory effect on iNOS expression and NO production in activated macrophages" by Hämäläinen M, Nieminen R, Vuorela P, Heinonen M, Moilanen E.(27)

e. Immunity
In the unvestigation of Naringenin, a flavonoid in grapefruits and citrus fruits and its effec in immune system found that naringenin potently suppressed picryl chloride (PCl)-induced contact hypersensitivity by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes. In vitro, both of the activated hapten-specific T cells and the T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 showed growth arrest after naringenin treatment, according to "A novel regulatory mechanism of naringenin through inhibition of T lymphocyte function in contact hypersensitivity suppression" by Fang F, Tang Y, Gao Z, Xu Q.(28)

3. Catechin is phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, etc.
a. Cholesterol
In a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the relationship between GTCs and serum lipid levels, including total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, found that the consumption of GTCs is associated with a statistically significant reduction in total and LDL cholesterol levels; however, there was no significant effect on HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels, according to " Green tea catechins decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Kim A, Chiu A, Barone MK, Avino D, Wang F, Coleman CI, Phung OJ.(29)

b. Antioxidant activity
In the research on polyphenolic compounds (included catechins) in the berries of edible honeysuckle and their biological effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed found that These berries seem to be prospective sources of health-supporting phytochemicals that exhibit beneficial anti-adherence and chemo-protective activities, thus they may provide protection against a number of chronic conditions, e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth or cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, according to "Phenolic profile of edible honeysuckle berries (genus lonicera) and their biological effects" by Jurikova T, Rop O, Mlcek J, Sochor J, Balla S, Szekeres L, Hegedusova A, Hubalek J, Adam V, Kizek R.(30)

c. Severe dyslipidemia
In the observation of three-month old ATX mice were treated, or not, for 3 months with the polyphenol (+)-catechin (CAT, 30 mg/kg/day) and compared to wild-type (WT) controls,
found that cctive remodeling of the cerebrovascular wall in ATX mice was further suggested by the increase (P<0.05) in pro-metalloproteinase-9 activity, which was normalized by CAT. We conclude that by preserving the endothelial function, a chronic treatment with CAT prevents the deleterious effect of severe dyslipidemia on cerebral artery wall structure and biomechanical properties, contributing to preserving resting cerebral blood flow, according to "Catechin prevents severe dyslipidemia-associated changes in wall biomechanics of cerebral arteries in LDLr-/-:hApoB+/+ mice and improves cerebral blood flow" by Bolduc V, Baraghis E, Duquette N, Thorin-Trescases N, Lambert J, Lesage F, Thorin E.(31)

d. Anti-inflammatory effect
In the preparation of the gel of Chinese medicine catechu, and to observe the release mechanism in vitro and anti-inflammatory activity in rats, found that the optimum condition of extraction from catechu was as follows, the concentration of ethanol, ratio of raw material to solvent, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature were 50% , 1: 12, 35 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The formulation of catechu gel was carbomer-9 400.5 g, glycerol 5.0 g, the extracts of catechu 50.0 mL, and triethanomine 0.5 mL The gel was semitransparent and stable. The drugs released quickly. The catechu gel reduced the paw edema considerably in dose-dependent manner compared to carrageenan-induced rat, according to "[Preparation and pharmacodynamics studies on anti-inflammatory effect of catechu gel].[Article in Chinese]" by Zheng X, Zheng C.(32)

4. Flavanonols (with two "o"s aka 3-hydroxyflavanone or 2,3-dihydroflavonol) are a class of flavonoids that use the 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-2-phenylchromen-4-one (IUPAC name) backbone(a), found in Japanese Raisin Tree, the wood of Pinus sibirica, Prunus domestica, brazilian green propolis, Black mulberry, etc.
 a. Antioxidant capacity
In the determination of the antioxidant of the polyphenolic constituents in some fruits, using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay, found that cutite showed the highest antioxidant capacity followed by jambolão, araçá, and muruci and antioxidant turned out to be primarily good sources of hydrolyzable tannins and/or flavonols, according to "Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacity of four underutilized fruits from the Amazon region"by Gordon A, Jungfer E, da Silva BA, Maia JG, Marx F.(33)

b. Anti viral effects
In testing several flavonoids effects on Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase activity and studies of four groups of flavonoids, namely flavones, flavanones, flavonols, and flavanonols, found that flavonols and flavanonols were very active in this regard while flavones and flavanones displayed very low activity, according to "Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase activity" by Chu SC, Hsieh YS, Lin JY.(34)

c. Anti inflammatory effects
In the examination in a double-blind intervention study conducted with two groups of non-smoking, un-treated sarcoidosis patients, matched for age and gender. One group was given 4x500 mg quercetin (n = 12) orally within 24 h, the other one placebo (n = 6). Plasma malondialdehyde levels were used as marker of oxidative damage, plasma ratios of TNFα/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-10 as pro-inflammatory markers, found that Sarcoidosis patients might benefit from the use of antioxidants, such as quercetin in the group of Flavonols, to reduce the occurring oxidative stress as well as inflammation. The effects of long-term use of antioxidant supplementation in sarcoidosis, using e.g. quercetin, on improvement of lung function remain to be investigated, according to "Quercetin reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in sarcoidosis" by Boots AW, Drent M, de Boer VC, Bast A, Haenen GR.(35)

d. Etc.

5. Etc. 
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