Friday, 29 November 2013

Thyroid Disease : Acute thyroiditis – The Phytochemicals and antioxidants

Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is under active and produces very little thyroid hormones. Thyroid cancer is defined as condition in which the cells in the thyroid gland have become cancerous.
Acute thyroiditis (Acute infectious thyroiditis or acute suppurative thyroiditis) is defined as a condition of as a result of relatively high amount of iodine in the tissue causes of microbial inflammatory thyroiditis, pyrogenic thyroiditis and bacterial thyroiditis. Acute infectious thyroiditis is very rare, accounting for about 0.1-0.7% of all thyroiditis.
E. Prevention
E.2. Phytochemicals and antioxidants to prevent Acute infectious thyroiditis
1. Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide)
In the investigation of an antimicrobial sulfur compound newly isolated from heated garlic extract, showed that the compound was CH₂=CH-CH₂-S-S-S-CH₂-CH(NH₂)COOH, 3-(allyltrisulfanyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid, a derivative of cysteine, presumably derived from alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide). This novel compound has comparatively potent anti-yeast activity and rather weak antibacterial activity, similar to other antimicrobial compounds in garlic, according to “3-(allyltrisulfanyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid, a novel nonvolatile water-soluble antimicrobial sulfur compound in heated garlic” by Kang SS, Lim DR, Kyung KH.(33). Others in the evaluation of the in vitro anti-fungal efficacy of the active principle of garlic, pure allicin and polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with allicin.found that that pure allicin has stronger in vitro anti-fungal efficacy to six tested fungi than alliinase and alliin. Moreover, it has improved significantly after pure allicin being wrapped into PBCA NP, which may be due to the NP’s good prolonged release effect and nano-scale dimensions, according to “Anti-fungal efficacy of polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles of allicin and comparison with pure allicin” by Luo DQ, Guo JH, Wang FJ, Jin ZX, Cheng XL, Zhu JC, Peng CQ, Zhang C.(34).
2. Allyl sulfides
According to the article of “GARLICTHE BOUNTIFUL BULB” by Carmia Borek, Ph.D. posted in Life extension magazine, the author indicated that human studies confirm immune stimulation by garlic. Subjects receiving aged garlic extract at 1800 mg a day for three weeks showed a 155.5% increase in natural killer immune cell activity that kills invaders and cancer cells. Other subjects receiving large amounts of fresh garlic of 35g a day, equivalent to 10 cloves, showed an increase of 139.9%. In six weeks, patients with AIDS receiving aged garlic extract showed an enhancement of natural killer cells from a seriously low level to a normal level. Others according to “Allicin from fresh Garlic Nature’s Original Antimicrobial”, The Englishman’s Doctor (Harrington, 1609), the author indicated that the antibacterial properties of crushed garlic have been known for a long time. Various garlic preparations have been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including species of Escherichia, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Bacillus, and C!ostridium.
3. Triterpenoids
According to the result of ” Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam? by Pochapski MT, Fosquiera EC, Esmerino LA, Dos Santos EB, Farago PV, Santos FA, Groppo FC. (Source from Department of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil) posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests.
4. Phytoene
In the investigation of 26 healthy young volunteers. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, Lyc-o-Mato (5.7 mg of lycopene, 3.7 mg of phytoene, 2.7 mg of phytofluene, 1 mg of beta-carotene, and 1.8 mg of alpha-tocopherol) or a placebo drink (same taste and flavor, but devoid of active compounds) were given for 26 days, separated by a wash-out period, found that TNF-alpha production by whole blood was 34.4% lower after 26 days of drink consumption, whereas the other parameters were not significantly modified by the treatment. In turn, modest effects of the regular intake of a tomato drink, providing small amounts of carotenoids, were found on the production of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-alpha, in young healthy volunteers. Future intervention trials in subjects with low carotenoid status and/or compromised immune system will resolve the issue of whether carotenoids modulate immune parameters in humans, according to ” Effect of a tomato-based drink on markers of inflammation, immunomodulation, and oxidative stress” by Riso P, Visioli F, Grande S, Guarnieri S, Gardana C, Simonetti P, Porrini M.(35).
5. Resveratrol
In a study of “Resveratrol, MicroRNAs, Inflammation, and Cancer.” by Tili E, Michaille JJ. (Source from Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University, Biomedical Research Tower, 460 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.), posted in PubMed, researchers mentioned in abstract that the above microRNAs are thought to link inflammation and cancer. Recently, resveratrol (trans-3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenol with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, currently at the stage of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention, has been shown to induce the expression of miR-663, a tumor-suppressor and anti-inflammatory microRNA, while downregulating miR-155 and miR-21.
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All rights reserved. Any reproducing of this article must have the author name and all the links intact. "Let Take Care Your Health, Your Health Will Take Care You" Kyle J. Norton I have been studying natural remedies for disease prevention for over 20 years and working as a financial consultant since 1990. Master degree in Mathematics, teaching and tutoring math at colleges and universities before joining insurance industries. Part time Health, Insurance and Entertainment Article Writer.

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