Friday, 29 November 2013

Thyroid Disease : Silent thyroiditis – The Phytochemicals and antioxidants

Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is under active and produces very little thyroid hormones. Thyroid cancer is defined as condition in which the cells in the thyroid gland have become cancerous.
Silent thyroiditis
Silent thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. Patients with silent thyroiditis are experience back and forth between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The disease classically present with a triphasic course: a brief period of thyrotoxicosis due to release of preformed thyroid hormone that lasts for 1 to 3 months, followed by a more prolonged hypothyroid phase lasting up to 6 months, and eventual return to a euthyroid state. However, the types and degree of thyroid dysfunction are variable in these disorders, and individual patients may present with mild or more severe cases of thyrotoxicosis alone, hypothyroidism alone, or both types of thyroid dysfunction(a).
E. Prevention
E.2. Phytochemicals and antioxidants to prevent silent thyroiditis
1. Resveratrol
In a study of “Resveratrol, MicroRNAs, Inflammation, and Cancer.” by Tili E, Michaille JJ. (Source from Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University, Biomedical Research Tower, 460 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.), posted in PubMed, researchers mentioned in abstract that the above microRNAs are thought to link inflammation and cancer. Recently, resveratrol (trans-3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenol with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, currently at the stage of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention, has been shown to induce the expression of miR-663, a tumor-suppressor and anti-inflammatory microRNA, while downregulating miR-155 and miR-21.
2. Pterostilbene
In the examination of the molecular mechanisms of the action of pterostilbene in colon cancer,
indicated that A combination of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IFN-gamma, and bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide) induced inflammation-related genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which was significantly suppressed by treatment with pterostilbene. We further identified upstream signaling pathways contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity of pterostilbene by investigating multiple signaling pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB, Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, according to “Anti-inflammatory action of pterostilbene is mediated through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in colon cancer cells” by Paul S, Rimando AM, Lee HJ, Ji Y, Reddy BS, Suh N.(45).
3. Phytofluene
In the investigation of the effects of CoQ10 and colorless carotenoids (phytoene and phytofluene, or to combinations of these antioxidants) on the production of inflammatory mediators in human dermal fibroblasts treated with UV radiation (UVR) and the possible synergistic effects of these two antioxidants, found that CoQ10 is able to suppress the UVR- or IL-1-induced inflammatory response in dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, this compound can block the UVR induction of the matrix-eroding enzyme, MMP-1. Finally, the combination of carotenoids plus CoQ10 results in enhanced suppression of inflammation. The results suggest that the combination of carotenoids and CoQ10 in topical skin care products may provide enhanced protection from inflammation and premature aging caused by sun exposure, according to “Anti-inflammatory effects of CoQ10 and colorless carotenoids” by Fuller B, Smith D, Howerton A, Kern D.(46).
4. Piceatannol
In the investigation of the modulation of inflammation by resveratrol and its metabolites by determining the expression and release of chemokine, eotaxin-1, in cultured human pulmonary artery endothelial cells, found that piceatannol showed potency similar to resveratrol. We propose that control of eotaxin-1 expression and release by proinflammatory cytokines in HPAEC may be considered as an in vitro model for screening and discovering polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activities and cardioprotective potentials, according to “Control of eotaxin-1 expression and release by resveratrol and its metabolites in culture human pulmonary artery endothelial cells” by Yang CJ, Lin CY, Hsieh TC, Olson SC, Wu JM.(47)
5. Selenium
Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 +/- 23.1 microg/l and 59.3 +/- 20.1 microg/l, respectively) as well as in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma(48).
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