Friday, 29 November 2013

Meningitis - The Signs and Symptoms

Meningitis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the protective membranes,  covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Meningitis, a life threaten disease, can kill and immediate action can and does save lives.(1) Although bacterial meningitis has become an uncommon disease in the developed world. Unfortunately, because of limited economic resources and poor living conditions, many developing countries are still affected by the devastating consequences of this life-threatening systemic infection(2)

Signs and Symptoms
In the research posted in European Journal of Pediatrics, scientists showed that
1.  The most common symptoms according to age were as follows: 1–5 months: irritability (85%), 6–11 months and 12 months or more: vomiting (82%) and neck rigidity (78%).
2. Meningitis should be suspected in irritable or lethargic febrile children despite absence of neck rigidity. Fever and vomiting were the most frequent reasons for consulting a physician (60% and 31%, respectively). Despite the frequency and alarming character of irritability, impaired consciousness and neck rigidity, their presence led infrequently to a consultation (6%, 22% and 3%, respectively).(8)

2. In other study to identify 433 patients with viral meningitis and 101 TBM patients and compared their clinical and laboratory features. Multivariable analysis showed a statistically significant association between TBM and the following variables: duration of symptoms before admission of ≥5 days, presence of neurological impairment (altered consciousness, seizures, mild focal signs, multiple cranial nerve palsies, dense hemiplegia or paraparesis), cerebrospinal fluid/blood glucose ratio < 0.5 and cerebrospinal fluid protein level > 100 mg/dl(10)

3. Confusion
Confusion is also associated with symptoms of meningitis. in study of a seventy-five-year-old patient was hospitalized because of relapsing feverish confusion episodes with meningitis. During the year before his admission he had experienced four spontaneously regressive episodes of feverish confusion(9)

4. Other symptoms include sleepiness, discomfort looking into bright lights and In some cases, rash may be presented as a result of meningococcal bacteria.

5. Etc.
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