Monday, 4 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Pygeum

Pygeum is an extracts from the bark of Prunus africana which is is an evergreen tree, in the genus Prunus, belonging to the family Rosaceae, native to the montane regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and and the Islands of Madagascar, Sao Tome, Fernando Po and Grande Comore at about 900–3400 m(I). The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate), inflammation, erectile dysfunction, kidney disease, male baldness, stomach upset, urinary tract disorders, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia
In the determination of the effect of Pygeum africanum (Tadenan) used in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, found that the oral intake of Pygeum africanum resulted in serum levels of active substances that were sufficient to inhibit the proliferation of cultured myofibroblasts prostatic cells. This inhibition was associated with changes in the transcriptome, according to "Biological effect of human serum collected before and after oral intake of Pygeum africanum on various benign prostate cell cultures" by Larré S, Camparo P, Comperat E, Boulbés D, Haddoum M, Baulande S, Soularue P, Costa P, Cussenot O.(1)

2. Antiandrogenic activity
In the investigation of the the compound N-butylbenzene-sulfonamide (NBBS) isolated from extracts from Pygeum africanum are used in the treatment of prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), found that NBBS inhibits both endogenous PSA expression and growth of human PCa cells. Mechanistically, NBBS binds to AR and inhibits its translocation to the cell nucleus. Our data suggest that NBBS is one of the active compounds of P. africanum bark and may serve as a naturally occurring, novel therapeutic agent for treatment of prostatic diseases. Thus, NBBS and its derivatives may serve as novel chemical platform for treatment prostatitis, BPH and PCa, according to "NBBS isolated from Pygeum africanum bark exhibits androgen antagonistic activity, inhibits AR nuclear translocation and prostate cancer cell growth" by Papaioannou M, Schleich S, Roell D, Schubert U, Tanner T, Claessens F, Matusch R, Baniahmad A.(2)

3. Anti diabetes
In the identification of the gene and protein expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and substance P (SP) in the bladder 8 weeks after diabetes induction found that the decrease in NGF and SP may be a contributory factor in diabetic cystopathy. In addition, P. africanum could significantly upregulate the expression of NGF and SP in diabetic rats, according to "Nerve growth factor and substance P: expression in a rat model of diabetic bladder" by
Li Y, Shi B, Wang D, Wang P, Laudon V, Zhang J, Liu Y.(3)

4. Lipid peroxidation
In the Identification of components of chloroform extract from the bark of Prunus africana found that The extract, V-1326, and fractions containing high levels of myristic acid potently inhibited lipid peroxidation, according to "Identification of components of Prunus africana extract that inhibit lipid peroxidation" by Hass MA, Nowak DM, Leonova E, Levin RM, Longhurst PA.(4)

5. Symptoms of obstructive bladder dysfunction
In the study of Tadenan, an extract of Pygeum africanum, and its therapeutic prescribed effect in Europe to relieve symptoms of obstructive bladder dysfunction found that tadenan treatment of obstructed rabbits resulted in a dose dependent improvement in bladder ultrastructure in parallel with improved bladder compliance and contractile responses of isolated strips to stimulation, providing support for the hypothesis that damage to cellular and subcellular organelle membranes mediates the contractile dysfunction induced by partial outlet obstruction, according to "Effect of oral Tadenan treatment on rabbit bladder structure and function after partial outlet obstruction" by Levin RM, Hass MA, Bellamy F, Horan P, Whitbeck K, Chow PH, Kung LS, Gosling J.(5)

6. Anti cancers
in the evaluation a natural products, including pygeum, as potential cancer chemopreventive agents in a short term in vitro assay involving Epstein--Barr virus found that the activities of 16 new medicinal plants as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. Since inhibitors of EBV-EA promoted by TPA in vitro have been shown to be effective anti-tumor promoting agents in laboratory animal models, our results indicate new and potential applications of these herbal remedies as cancer chemopreventive agents since they are already in clinical use in the human population, according to "Inhibitory effect of herbal remedies on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation" by Kapadia GJ, Azuine MA, Tokuda H, Hang E, Mukainaka T, Nishino H, Sridhar R.(6)

7. Bladder protective effect
In the assessment of the pretreatment with Tadenan® (Pygeum africanum extract) has been shown to protect the rabbit bladder against the development of both contractile and biochemical dysfunctions induced by partial outlet obstruction found that tadenan pretreatment protected the nonischemic side of the bladder from the development of contractile dysfunctions, and unilateral ischemia resulted in a 10-fold increase in the expression of both Hsp-70 and c-myc in the bladders isolated from the Tadenan-treated rabbits, according to "Effects of Unilateral Ischemia on the Contractile Response of the Bladder: Protective Effect of Tadenan (Pygeum africanum Extract)" by Chen MW, Levin RM, Horan P, Buttyan RB.(7)

8. Urological and sexual effects
In the evaluation of the efficacy of an extract of Pygeum Africanum (Tadenan) (Roussel-Pharma) in patients suffering from prostatic hypertrophy or chronic prostatitis, found that Pygeum Africanum extract administration improved all the urinary parameters we investigated; prostatic echography relieved reduction of peri-urethral edema. Also an improvement of sexual behaviour has been obtained; but we have not found significant differences between serum hormonal levels before and after therapy, as well as for NPTR, according to "[Urological and sexual evaluation of treatment of benign prostatic disease using Pygeum africanum at high doses].[Article in Italian]" by Carani C, Salvioli V, Scuteri A, Borelli A, Baldini A, Granata AR, Marrama P.(8)

9. Urination disorders
In the assessment of The efficacy of an extract of Pygeum africanum in the treatment of micturitional disorders due to benign prostatic hyperplasia was tested in a multicentre double-blind trial versus placebo, found that Overall assessment at the end of therapy, showed that micturition improved in 66% of the patients treated with Pygeum africanum extract, as compared with an improvement of 31% in the placebo group. The difference was significant at the statistical level of p less than 0.001. During therapy with Pygeum africanum extract, gastrointestinal side effects occurred in 5 patients. Treatment was discontinued in three of those cases, according to "[Efficacy of Pygeum africanum extract in the medical therapy of urination disorders due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: evaluation of objective and subjective parameters. A placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter study].[Article in German]" by Barlet A, Albrecht J, Aubert A, Fischer M, Grof F, Grothuesmann HG, Masson JC, Mazeman E, Mermon R, Reichelt H, et al.(9)

10. Etc.

Side effects
1. Pygeum may interact with other herbs or medicine
2. Overdoses can be toxic
3. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
4. The most common side effects of pygeum include constipation, diarrhea, nausea, etc.
5. Etc.

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