Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Testicular Cancer

Testicular Cancer is a cancer arises in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, part of male reproductive system, responding to the production and reproduction of male sex hormones and sperm. It tends to develop in the age groups of twenties and thirties.

Types of testicular cancer
1. Seminomas (Cancers of sperm producing cells)
Seminomas are originated from the sperm producing cells and accounted for 40% of all cases, seminomas tend to slower growing cancer, but it can spread to the lymph nodes in a quarter of patients. In most cases, it can be cured by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

2. Non-seminomas (Cancers of embryonal type of cells)
Non-seminomas are originated from the embryonal type of cells and accounted for 40% of all cases of testicular cancer. Non-seminomas are aggressive and tend to spread quickly, including a. Embryonal carcinomas
Embryonla carcinomas are very aggressive tumors and tend to grow quickly and spread to distant parts of the body including the lungs and liver.

b. Teratoma carcinomas
Teratoma carcinomas tend to develop in young boys more then adult men and are generally benign and rarely spread to nearby tissues and distant parts of the body.

c. Yolk-sac tumors
Yolk-sac tumors is a rare type of testicular cancer
c.1. If it affects in children, it can be treated successfully in most cases
c.2. if it affects adult men, it can be treated by chemotherapy, even if they have spread.

d. Choriocarcinomas
Choriocarcinomas, a rare type of testicular cancer, affects mostly younger men and responds poorly to radiation and chemotherapy and carries high mortality rate.

Types of food to prevent and treat testicle cancer
1. Nutrient mixture (NM)
In the study to investigate the inhibitory effects of a nutrient mixture (NM)
a. Lysine (Beans and other legumes)
b. Proline (Gelatin)
c. Arginine (Spinach, Lentils and Whole Grains)
d. Ascorbic acid (Circuit fruit)
e. Green tea
on human testicular cancer cell line NT 2/DT matrigel invasion and MMP activity, showed that The nutrient mixture showed no significant effect on testis cancer cell growth. Zymography demonstrated secretion of MMP-2 by untreated human testis cancer cells and MMP-9 with PMA induction. NM inhibited secretion of both MMPs in a dose-dependent fashion with virtual total inhibition of MMP-9 at 100 microg/mL. Invasion of human testis cancer cells through Matrigel was reduced by 84% at 50 microg/mL and at 100 microg/mL (p = 0.004). NM significantly inhibited MMP secretion and matrix invasion in testicular cancer cells without toxic effect, indicating potential as an anticancer agent(1)

2. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17848742

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