Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Stomach Cancer/Gastric Cancer

Stomach located between the esophagus and the small intestine, is a muscular, hollow and an important organ of the digestive tract.

Stomach cancer is defined as condition of abnormal growth of the mucus-producing cells ofthe inside lining of the stomach. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer.

Types of stomach cancer
1. Adenocarcinoma
If cancer arises from the glands in the mucosa
a. Superficial spreading
It is an early stage of the cancer and tend to be less aggressive or ulcer
b. Polyloid
Cancer grows in pattern like a polyp and is less aggressive.
c. Infiltrating
If cancer grows in infiltrating pattern into the stomach wall and more aggressive.
d. Linitis plastica
Cancer grows diffusivity throughout the whole wall of stomach

2. Lymphomas
Cancer of the lymphocytes originated from the stomach and behave much like lyphomas of the other parts of the body but

3. Sarcomas
Cancer originated from the connected tissue of the stomach behave much like sarcomas of the other parts of the body but adenocarcinoma.

Types of food to prevent and treat Stomach Cancer/Gastric Cancer
1.  Broccoli and broccoli sprout
Some reserachers suggested that sulforaphane [(-)-1-isothiocyanato-(4R)-(methylsulfinyl)butane], an isothiocyanate abundant as its glucosinolate precursor in certain varieties of broccoli and broccoli sprouts, is a potent bacteriostatic agent against 3 reference strains and 45 clinical isolates of H. pylori [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 90% of the strains is <or=4 microg/ml], irrespective of their resistance to conventional antibiotics. Further, brief exposure to sulforaphane was bactericidal, and eliminated intracellular H. pylori from a human epithelial cell line (HEp-2). In complementary experiments, sulforaphane blocked benzo[a]pyrene-evoked forestomach tumors in ICR mice. This protection resulted from induction of phase 2 detoxication and antioxidant enzymes, and was abrogated in mice lacking the nrf2 gene, which regulates phase 2 enzymes. Thus, the dual actions of sulforaphane in inhibiting Helicobacter infections and blocking gastric tumor formation offer hope that these mechanisms might function synergistically to provide diet-based protection against gastric cancer in humans(1).

2. Turmeric
Curcumin, a phytochemical compound found in Turmeric has exerted the inhibitory effect against Gastric Cancer. Dr. Sintara K and scientist at the  Chulalongkorn University, indicated that curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis(2).

3. Legumes and soy
Genistein is a phytochemical in the Isoflavones, belonging to the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in food of the family of legumes, soy, etc. In the study to determinewhether the effect of genistein is mediated via suppression of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 protein, and elucidated the mechanism of action of this effect in the human gastric cancer cell line BGC-823, showed that Genistein treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner; Western blotting analysis indicated a significant dose-dependent decrease in COX-2 protein levels. Genistein treatment exerted a significant inhibitory effect on activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Additionally, the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate caused a reduction in COX-2 protein levels and NF-κB activation, similar to the effect of genistein(3).

4. Apple and Chamomille Tea
Quercetin is a member of flavonoids, found in apple and Chamomille Tea. It is also one of antioxidants with property of protecting our body in fighting against forming of free radicals cause of mutation of cells`DNA. Dr. Qin Y and scientists at the Wuhan University of Science and Technology,
indicated that Quercetin could inhibit the Proliferation of MGC-803 cells. It is probably relevant to the down-regulation the expressions of Leptin and Leptin receptor protein, Leptin mRNA and Leptin receptor mRNA by JAK-STAT pathway(4).

5. Etc.

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