Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands found in the neck, below the Adam's Apple with the function of regulating the body use of energy, make of proteins by producing its hormones as a result of the stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary.

Thyroid cancer is defined as condition in which the cells in the thyroid gland have become cancerous.

Types of thyroid cancer
The most common types of thyroid cancer include
1. Papillary thyroid cancer
Papillary thyroid cancer, the most common type of thyroid cancer, makes up about 80 percent of all thyroid cancers. The cancer tends to develop in the women age group between 30-40 years of age and grow slowly. Papillary thyroid cancer can be cure if diagnosed early.
2. Follicular thyroid cancer
Follicular thyroid cancer, the second most common thyroid cancer, makes up about 15 percent of all case. It is a low grow cancer with peak onset ages 40 through 60. Follicular thyroid cancer can be treat successful, if diagnosed early.
3. Medullary thyroid cancer
Medullary thyroid cancer, third most common thyroid cance makes up about 3 percent of all cases, arise from thyroid hormone producing cells with abnormally high levels of calcitonin. Medullary thyroid cancer tends to grow slowly but it can spread to distant parts of the body, if not treated early.
4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer
Anaplastic thyroid cancer the rare case of thyroid cancer, makes up less than 2 percent of all cases. The cancer cells tend to grow and spread very quickly. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is deadly, with only 10% of alive rate, 3 years after it is diagnosed.

Types of food to prevent and treat thyroid cancer
1. Legumes, soy and peanut
Daidzein is a phytochemical in the Isoflavones, belonging to the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in food of the family of legumes, soy, peanut, etc..In the study to explore whether or not human thyroid cancer cell growth can be curbed by a novel isoflavone derivative generated in our laboratory, the N-t-Boc-hexylenediamine derivative of 7-(O)-carboxymethyl daidzein (cD-tboc), showed that when nude mice carrying ARO thyroid xenografts were treated with cD-tboc, tumor volume decreased significantly, and no apparent toxicity was observed. These results suggest that cD-tboc may be a promising agent for therapy of thyroid carcinoma either alone or in combination with existing cytotoxic drugs(1).

2. Soybean
In the study to observe that an acidic methanolic extract of soybeans contains compounds that inhibit thyroid peroxidase-(TPO) catalyzed reactions essential to thyroid hormone synthesis, showed that In the presence of iodide ion, genistein and daidzein blocked TPO-catalyzed tyrosine iodination by acting as alternate substrates, yielding mono-, di-, and triiodoisoflavones. Genistein also inhibited thyroxine synthesis using iodinated casein or human goiter thyroglobulin as substrates for the coupling reaction(2).

3. Green tea
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, was shown to possess remarkable therapeutic potential against various types of human cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo models.  In the study to investigate the effect of EGCG on the proliferation and apoptosis of ARO cells--human ATC cells, showed that EGCG treatment inhibited the growth of ARO cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGCG suppressed phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These changes were associated with increased p21 and reduced cyclin B1/CDK1 expression. In addition, EGCG treatment increased the accumulation of sub-G1 cell, activated caspase-3 and cleaved PARP(3).

4. Etc.

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