Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Stroke

Besides cancer and heart diseases, stroke is the third leading cause of death. Approximate 1/4 of all stroke victims die as a direct result of the stroke or it's complications. Stroke is caused by uncontrolled diet that is high in saturated and trans fats resulting in cholesterol build up in the arteries and high blood pressure. In other words, if cholesterol building up in the arteries is blocking the circulation of blood in any part of the body causing oxygen not to be delivered to the brain, resulting in some cells in the brain to die off and are unable reproduce, then we have stroke. Other strokes happen when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures causing the cells in your brain to be deprived of oxygen in your blood, they die and never come back.
There are similar causes of stroke and heart diseases, but in stroke the result is more severe. Any delay of rescuing will result in death of the victim.

Types of Food to prevent and treat stroke
1. Mediterranean-style diet
In the study of examined an MeDi in relation to vascular events, showed that he MeDi-score distribution was as follows: 0-2 (14%), 3 (17%), 4 (22%), 5 (22%), and 6-9 (25%). Over a mean follow-up of 9 y, 518 vascular events accrued (171 ischemic strokes, 133 MIs, and 314 vascular deaths). The MeDi score was inversely associated with risk of the composite outcome of ischemic stroke, MI, or vascular death (P-trend = 0.04) and with vascular death specifically (P-trend = 0.02). Moderate and high MeDi scores were marginally associated with decreased risk of MI. There was no association with ischemic stroke(1).

2. Olive oil
In the study to  determine whether high olive oil consumption, and high plasma oleic acid as an indirect biological marker of olive oil intake, are associated with lower incidence of stroke in older subjects, indicated that Compared to those who never used olive oil, those with intensive use had a 41%(95% confidence interval 6%-63%, p = 0.03) lower risk of stroke. In the secondary sample, 27 incident strokes occurred. After full adjustment, higher plasma oleic acid was associated with lower stroke incidence (p for trend = 0.03). Compared to those in the first tertile, participants in the third tertile of plasma oleic acid had a 73% (95% confidence interval 10%-92%, p = 0.03) reduction of stroke risk(2).

3. Celery and parsley
In the examination of the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among participants in a large, prospective US cohort, indicated that During 7 y of follow-up, 1589 CVD deaths in men and 1182 CVD deaths in women occurred. Men and women with total flavonoid intakes in the top (compared with the bottom) quintile had a lower risk of fatal CVD (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01). Five flavonoid classes-anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins-were individually associated with lower risk of fatal CVD (all P-trend < 0.05). In men, total flavonoid intakes were more strongly associated with stroke mortality (RR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89; P-trend = 0.04) than with ischemic heart disease (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.13). Many associations appeared to be nonlinear, with lower risk at intakes above the referent category(3).

4. Green tea and coffee
In the review of the emerging evidence for green tea in stroke prevention, showed that green tea is a safe and cheap beverage. Its consumption should be encouraged because it could potentially serve as a practical method for stroke prevention(4). Other suggested that Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential bioactivity(5).

5. Fat fish
In the study of omega 3 fatty acids and the associations between intakes of total fat, specific types of fat, and cholesterol and risk of stroke in a prospective cohort of women, showed that intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs is inversely associated with risk of stroke, whereas dietary cholesterol is positively associated with risk(6).

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071704
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21676914
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22218162
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17352971
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456725

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