Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Candidiasis

Candida albicans is a member of a large group of organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast and mold that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that does cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis.

Types of food to prevent and treat Candidiasis
1. Cinnamon
In the study to examine the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro, found that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection(1).

2.  Skin and seed of grape
In the study to investigate the antifungal action by resveratrol in Candida albicans, which is a human infectious fungi as an agent of candidiasis, showed that A significant accumulation of intracellular trehalose was induced by stress responses to resveratrol action, and a remarkable arrest of cell-cycle processes at the S-phase in C. albicans occured. Therefore, the fungicidal effects of resveratrol demonstrate that this compound is a potential candidate as an antifungal agent in treating infectious diseases by candidal infections(2).

3. Corn Mint
In the study of  ethanol extracts from M. arvensis and T. ulmifolia were assayed for antifungal activity against strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei found that a potentiation effect was observed when the extracts were applied with metronidazole against C. tropicalis. M. arvensis and T. ulmifolia could represent a source of natural products with modifying antifungal activity(3).

4. Black tea
In the study of the effects of 4 different concentrations of catechins and theaflavins were evaluated on 5 isolates each of 5 Candida species employing an agar diffusion growth inhibition assay, showed that both polyphenols showed anti-Candida activity against all tested Candida species and demonstrated a MIC of 6.25 mg/ml for C. albicans. C. glabrata was found to be the most sensitive species followed by C. parapsilosis, C. albicans, C. krusei and C. tropicalis (p < 0.05 for all). Significant intraspecies variations in sensitivity were noted among C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis (p < 0.001) for both polyphenols. Theaflavins displayed standard PAFE while catechins showed a paradoxical PAFE with all isolates of C. albicans. SEM revealed considerable cell wall damage of C. albicans cells exposed to the polyphenols(4)

5.  Cranberry
In the investigation of the effects of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) in inhibition of Candidiasis, found that although AC-PACs did not affect growth of C. albicans, it prevented biofilm formation and reduced adherence of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and saliva-coated acrylic resin discs. In addition, AC-PACs significantly decreased the secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 by oral epithelial cells stimulated with C. albicans. This anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced activation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylation of specific signal intracellular kinases(5).

6. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=green%20tea%20and%20Candidiasis
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18051601
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22082100
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=polyphenols%20Anti-Candida%20activity
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22248145

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