Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Skin Cancer (Excluding Melanoma)

Skin cancer is a medical condition of uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells and often detected at an early stage.

Types of skin cancers
The three most common skin cancers are
1. Basal cell cancer
It is the most common type of skin cancer as a result of abnormal growth of the cells in the lowest layer of the epidermis. The cancer rarely spread and kill but can cause significant destruction and disfigurement to the affected skin area and accounted for more than 90% of all skin cancer in the U.S.
2. Squamous cell cancer
It arises from the uncontrolled multiplication of transformed malignant cells in the middle layer of the epidermis.
3. Melanoma
Melanoma is a kind of skin cancer but less common to other skin cancer as a result of malignancy of melanocytes, which are the cell produced dark pigment for your skin. see Melanoma Skin Cancer (Malignant Melanoma) 

Types of food to prevent and treat skin cancer
1. Green tea
In the  investigations and mechanistic studies that define and support the photoprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against UV carcinogenesis, showed that oral administration of GTPs in drinking water or the topical application of EGCG prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice, and this prevention is mediated through: (a) the induction of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 12; (b) IL-12-dependent DNA repair following nucleotide excision repair mechanism; (c) the inhibition of UV-induced immunosuppression through IL-12-dependent DNA repair; (d) the inhibition of angiogenic factors; and (e) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells in a tumor microenvironment(1).

2. Turmeric,
In the study of  curcumin loaded chitin nanogels (CCNGs) were developed using biocompatible and biodegradable chitin with an anticancer curcumin drug. Chitin, as well as curcumin, is insoluble in water,
indicated that The CCNGs showed a 4-fold increase in steady state transdermal flux of curcumin as compared to that of control curcumin solution. The histopathology studies of the porcine skin samples treated with the prepared materials showed loosening of the horny layer of the epidermis, facilitating penetration with no observed signs of inflammation. These results suggest that the formulated CCNGs offer specific advantage for the treatment of melanoma, the most common and serious type of skin cancer, by effective transdermal penetration(2).

3. Tea, Grapes and berries
Myricetin is a flavonol, belong to the flavonoid in Flavonoids (polyphenols), found in many tea grapes, berries, fruits, etc. In the affirmation of myricetin, a flavonol, found to inhibit UVB-induced angiogenesis by targeting PI3-K in an SKH-1 hairless mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Raf kinase is a critical target for myricetin in inhibiting the UVB-induced formation of wrinkles and suppression of type I procollagen and collagen levels in mouse skin, according to "Myricetin is a potent chemopreventive phytochemical in skin carcinogenesis" by Kang NJ, Jung SK, Lee KW, Lee HJ.(3)

4. Grapes and red wine
in the study to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of resveratrol against UVB radiation-mediated skin tumorigenesis in the SKH-1 hairless mouse model, suggests that resveratrol enhanced apoptosis in UVB-exposure-mediated skin tumors. Our study, for the first time, demonstrated that 1) resveratrol imparts strong chemopreventive effects against UVB exposure-mediated skin carcinogenesis (relevant to human skin cancers), and 2) the chemopreventive effects of resveratrol may, at least in part, be mediated via modulations in Survivin and other associated events. On the basis of our work, it is conceivable to design resveratrol-containing emollient or patch, as well as sunscreen and skin-care products for prevention of skin cancer and other conditions, which are believed to be caused by UV radiation(4).

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