Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Prostate Cancer

Prostate warped around the around a tube (the urethra) is a gland of the male reproductive system found in front of the rectum and just below the bladder and responsible for making some of semen that carries sperm.

Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth which spread to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams.

Types of food to prevent and treat prostate cancers
1. Tomato
In the study of `Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis.`by Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, Willett W, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Stampfer MJ. (Source from Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA. pgann@nwu.edu), researchers found that the ORs for all prostate cancers declined slightly with increasing quintile of plasma lycopene (5th quintile OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.54-1.06; P, trend = 0.12); there was a stronger inverse association for aggressive prostate cancers (5th quintile OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.34-0.91; P, trend = 0.05). In the placebo group, plasma lycopene was very strongly related to lower prostate cancer risk (5th quintile OR = 0.40; P, trend = 0.006 for aggressive cancer), whereas there was no evidence for a trend among those assigned to beta-carotene supplements and concluded that These data provide further evidence that increased consumption of tomato products and other lycopene-containing foods might reduce the occurrence or progression of prostate cancer(1).

2. Grapes and berries
Myricetin, a flavonol, belong to the flavonoid in Flavonoids (polyphenols), found in many grapes, berries, fruits, etc has been used as antioxidant to lower cholesterol, treat certain types of cancer, etc.
In the selection of several potential uPA inhibitors (antipain, leupeptin, folic acid, rosmarinic acid, lavendustin A, fisetin, myricetin, tolfenamic acid) and examination of theirs effects in prostate cancer found that a proper diet rich in uPA-inhibiting nutraceuticals might support the prevention of prostrate cancer and be a supportive tool in prostate cancer treatment, according to "Nutraceutical inhibitors of urokinase: potential applications in prostate cancer prevention and treatment" by Jankun J, Selman SH, Aniola J, Skrzypczak-Jankun E.(2)

3. Green and black tea
Tea polyphenols have been extensively studied in cell culture and animal models where they inhibited tumor onset and progression. "In vivo animal, and clinical intervention studies examine the effects of extracts of GT or purified (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on prostate carcinogenesis. These studies provide strong evidence supporting a chemopreventive effect of GT, but results from epidemiological studies of GT consumption are mixed. While the evidence for a chemopreventive effect of BT is much weaker than the body of evidence with regard to GT, there are several animal BT intervention studies demonstrating inhibition of CaP growth" said Dr. Henning SM, and the research team at the University of California(3)

4. Soy milk
In the study to examine of a prospective study with 225 incident cases of prostate cancer in 12,395 California Seventh-Day Adventist men who in 1976 stated how often they drank soy milk.
suggests that men with high consumption of soy milk are at reduced risk of prostate cancer. Possible associations between soy bean products, isoflavones and prostate cancer risk should be further investigated(4).

5. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10096552
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16820913 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538852
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10189040 

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