Thursday, 28 November 2013

Thyroid disease: Hypothyroidism – Treatments In Herbal medicine perspective

Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is under active and produces very little thyroid hormones.
F. Treatments
F.2. In Herbal medicine perspective
1. Echinacea
a. Immune modulator
In the observation of ethanolic extract of fresh Echinacea purpurea and the changes in cytokine production in blood samples from 30 volunteers before and during 8-day oral administration found that Echinaforce regulates the production of chemokines and cytokines according to current immune status, such as responsiveness to exogenous stimuli, susceptibility to viral infection and exposure to stress, according to the study of “Effects of Echinaforce® treatment on ex vivo-stimulated blood cells” by Ritchie MR, Gertsch J, Klein P, Schoop R.(55)
b. Anxiety
In the evaluation of five different extract from Echinacea preparationsand it effects on anxiety found that three of these decreased anxiety but two of them had a very narrow effective dose range. Only one extract decreased anxiety within a wide dose-range (3-8 mg/kg). Anxiolytic effects were consistently seen in three different tests of anxiety, the elevated plus-maze, social interaction and shock-induced social avoidance tests. No locomotor suppressant effects were seen at any dose, according to “The effect of Echinacea preparations in three laboratory tests of anxiety: comparison with chlordiazepoxide” by Haller J, Hohmann J, Freund TF(56).
2. Ashwagandha
Ashwagandha also known as Withania somnifera is a nightshape plant in the genus of Withania, belonging to the family Solanaceae, native to the dry parts of India, North Africa, Middle East, and the Mediterranean. It has been considered as Indian ginseng and used in Ayurvedic medicine over 3000 years to treat tumors and tubercular glands, carbuncles, memory loss and ulcers and considered as anti-stress, cognition-facilitating, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging herbal medicine.
Ashwagandha can enhances immune function by increasing immunoglobulin production and regulating antibody production by augmenting both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production, according to the study of “A comparison of the immunostimulatory effects of the medicinal herbs Echinacea, Ashwagandha and Brahmi” by Yamada K, Hung P, Park TK, Park PJ, Lim BO., posted in PubMed(57).
3. Fucus vesiculosus
Fucus vesiculosus is also known as Bladderwrack is a source of iodine, discovered in 1811, and was used extensively to treat goitre, a swelling of the thyroid gland related to iodine deficiency.used for thyroid disorders including underactive thyroid (myxedema), over-sized thyroid gland. According to the study by Unidad de Salud Mental Hospital de Laredo, Fucus vesiculosus is a marine alga rich in iodine, which is being used in alternative medicine as a laxative, diuretic, and as a complement for weight loss diets. Fucus vesiculosus may cause hyperthyroidism given its high iodine content. Herbal preparations should be taken in account when treating a patient due to the possibility of adverse effects and interactions with other drugs(57a)
4. Kelp
In the study of the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in relation to iodine intake in adults (n = 1061) in five coastal areas of Japan that produce iodine-rich seaweed (kelp), found that
indicate that 1) the prevalence of hypothyroidism in iodine sufficient areas may be associated with the amount of iodine ingested; 2) hypothyroidism is more prevalent and marked in subjects consuming further excessive amounts of iodine; and 3) excessive intake of iodine should be considered an etiology of hypothyroidism in addition to chronic thyroiditis in these areas(58).
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