Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Mouth (Oral) cancer

Oral cancer is any malignant cell growth in the tissue located in the oral cavity, including the tissue of the lips or the tongue, cheek lining, floor of the mouth, gums (gingiva) and the roof of the mouth (palate).

Types of foods to prevent and treat Oral cancer
1. Green tea
Green tea is important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Polyphenols including epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves. Green tea has the potential to protect against various malignant, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Dr. Narotzki B and the research team at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, indicated that Green tea protects against bacterial induced dental caries. Tea polyphenols possess antiviral properties, believed to help in protection from influenza virus. Additionally, green tea polyphenols can abolish halitosis through modification of odorant sulphur components. Oral cavity oxidative stress and inflammation, consequent to cigarette smoking and cigarettes' deleterious compounds nicotine and acrolein, may be reduced in the presence of green tea polyphenols. Generally, green tea defends healthy cells from malignant transformation and locally has the ability to induce apoptosis in oral cancer cells(1).

2. Milk thistle seeds
Silybin is aslo known as Silibinin (INN), the major active ingredient of silymarin, a flavanone, found in the milk thistle seeds has exerted the protective effect to cause oral cancer cells apoptosis. In the study of Silibinin inhibits invasion of oral cancer cells by suppressing the MAPK pathway, showed that molecular evidence associated with the anti-metastatic effect of silibinin by showing a marked inhibition of the invasion and motility of SCC-4 tongue cancer cells, with 89% and 66.4% of inhibition, respectively, by 100 microM of silibinin. This effect was associated with a reduced expression of MMP-2 and u-PA, together with an enhanced expression of TIMP-2 and PAI-1(2)

3. Turmeric
Curcumin, a major active component and principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice of turmeric, ,has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers. Dr. Kim JY, and scientists in the study of Curcumin-induced autophagy contributes to the decreased survival of oral cancer cells. indicated that curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagic vacuoles formation by curcumin was almost completely blocked in the presence of N-acetylcystein (NAC), an antioxidant. Rescue experiments using an autophagy inhibitor suppressed curcumin-induced cell death in OSCC, confirming that autophagy acts as a pro-death signal. Furthermore, curcumin shows anticancer activity against OSCC via both autophagy and apoptosis(4).

4. Green vegetables, citrus fruits and red grape wines
Resveratrol and quercetin are polyphenols which have been found in abundantly in significant amounts in green vegetables, citrus fruits and red grape wines. Quercetin exhibited a biphasic effect, stimulation at 1 and 10 microM, and minimal inhibition at 100 microM in cell growth and DNA synthesis. Combining 50 microM of resveratrol with 10, 25 and 50 microM of quercetin resulted in a gradual and significant increase in the inhibitory effect of quercetin on cell growth and DNA synthesis(4).

5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22226360
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16498067
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22554995
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10211549

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