Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Melanoma skin cancer ( Malignant Melanoma)

Melanoma is a kind of skin cancer but less common to other skin cancer as a result of malignancy of of melanocytes, which is the cell produced dark pigment for your skin. Approximate 120,000 new cases of melanoma in the US are diagnosed in a year. melanoma tends to spread along the skin in most of the cases, but also can grow downward to the deeper layers of the skin. At the later stage, it can spread to distant parts of the body, including organs.

Types of melanoma
1. Superficial spreading
This is a most common type of melanoma, accounted for over 70% of all cases. It usually starts with a normal mole, but for what ever reason, it begins to change malignantly with irregular borders, and has color variations.

2. Nodular type
This type of melanoma is more aggressive growth than superficial spreading and found most on the trunk, upper arms, and thighs. The nodular type of melanoma is usual detected as a lump with blue and black color.

3. Acral melanoma
Acral melanoma mostly founded on the hands, feet, and nail beds. The risk increases for people with darken-skin color.

4. Lentigo maligna melanoma
Found mostly on the face of elderly in the eye, back at the eye. around the mouth, the anus or vagina with great exposure to sunlight.

Types of foods to prevent and treat Melanoma skin cancer
1. green tea
In the study to determine the effect of green tea catechins on the invasive potential of human melanoma cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (Non-BRAF-mutated) melanoma cell lines as an in vitro model, showed that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, has the ability to inhibit melanoma cell invasion/migration, an essential step of metastasis, by targeting the endogenous expression of COX-2, PGE(2) receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition(1).

2. Grape seed
In the examined the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on melanoma cancer cell migration and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using highly metastasis-specific human melanoma cell lines, A375 and Hs294t, indicated that GSPs have the ability to inhibit melanoma cell invasion/migration by targeting the endogenous expression of COX-2 and reversing the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition(2).

3. Turmeric
Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red. In the successfully incorporated curcumin into a bilayer of dodecanoic acid attached to magnetite nanoparticles in an effort to maximize solubility and delivery efficiency, found that fluorescent microscopy revealed that curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles were internalized by the melanoma cells and remained in the cytoplasm. The curcumin/magnetic nanoparticles synthesized in this study possess magnetic and water solubility properties making this a novel curcumin formulation with therapeutic potential(3).

4. Mango, Soy and Strawberries
Gallic acid (GA) is a phytochemical in the class of Phenolic acids, found abundantly in tea, mango, strawberries, soy, etc. In the study to examine the influence of GA on the protein levels and gene expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and in-vitro migration and invasiveness of human melanoma cells, showed that GA has antimetastatic potential by decreasing invasiveness of cancer cells. Moreover, this action of GA was involved in the Ras, p-ERK signaling pathways resulting in inhibition of MMP-2 in A375.S2 human melanoma cells. These data, therefore, provide evidence for the role of GA as a potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent, which can markedly inhibit the invasive capacity of melanoma cells(4).

5. Etc.

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