Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma)

Lymphoma is defined as a condition of cancer in the lymphatic cells (lymphocytes) of the immune system originated in lymph nodes. It represents a group of over 20 types of cancers. Since it is a cancer in the lymph nodes, it tends to begin with several places simultaneously and spread slowly or quickly to distant parts of body, depending to the grade of the cancer.
Lymphocytes are white blood cells in the lymph nodes and bone marrow.

Types of food to prevent and treat Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
1. Green tea
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea polyphenols in green tea, has been shown to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.In the study to investigate its efficacy and the mechanism underlying its effect using human B lymphoblastoid cell line Ramos, and effect of co-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent on apoptotic cell death found that pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium chloride, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase and an antioxidant, partially suppressed both EGCG-induced apoptosis and production of ROS, implying that oxidative stress is involved in the apoptotic response. Furthermore, we showed that combined-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, synergistically induced apoptosis in Ramos cells(1).

2. Rice bran
Emerging evidence supporting chronic disease fighting properties of rice bran has advanced the development of stabilized rice bran for human use as a functional food and dietary supplement. 
 Fermented rice bran extracts from three rice varieties reduced growth of human B lymphomas compared to each variety's nonfermented control and revealed that fermentation differentially altered bioactive compounds. These data support that integration of global and targeted metabolite analysis can be utilized for assessing health properties of rice bran phytochemicals that are enhanced by yeast fermentation and that differ across rice varieties(2).

3. Skins and seed of grape and wine
Resveratrol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in skins and seed of grape wine, etc. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Dr. Jazirehi AR and Dr. Bonavida B. at the  University of California at Los Angeles, in the study investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize NHL and MM cell lines to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis and to delineate the underlying molecular mechanism of sensitization. Both resveratrol and paclitaxel negatively modulated tumor cell growth by arresting the cells at the G(2)-M phase of the cell cycle, suggested that  Resveratrol selectively down-regulated the expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-x(L) and myeloid cell differentiation factor-1 (Mcl-1) and up-regulated the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax and apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1)(3).

4. Turmeric
In the study investigated a novel drug delivery nanovehicle enriched with the bioactive polyphenol, curcumin (curcumin nanodisks; curcumin-ND), showed that cells treated with curcumin-ND showed a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. This was accompanied by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, inhibited curcumin-ND induced apoptosis, suggesting that ROS generation plays a role in curcumin action on MCL cells. Curcumin-ND decreased cyclin D1, pAkt, pIκBα, and Bcl(2) protein. In addition, enhanced FoxO3a and p27 expression as well as caspase-9, -3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage were observed. Curcumin-ND treatment led to enhanced G(1) arrest in two cultured cell models of MCL(4).

5. Etc.

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