Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Gonorrhea


Types of food to prevent and treat Gonorrhea
In the study, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of the hexane extract (JCHE), methanol extract (JCME), and chloroform fraction (JCCF) of bark from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Family Bignoniaceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant, traditionally used as anti-syphilis and anti-gonorrhea treatment, showed that JCME presented antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 16.3 mg/mL, 9.1 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. JCCF was active against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, S. pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, and N. gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 18.3 mg/mL, 9.3 mg/mL, 6.3 mg/mL, 6.1 mg/mL, 9.2 mg/mL, 6.2 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of JCME and JCCF gave positive results for saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, triterpenes, and steroids. Verbascoside was isolated and identified as a major peak in JCME and JCCF high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activity.
1. Citrus fruits and maize
Coumarin is a phytochemical in the class of Lignans (phytoestrogens), belonging to the flavonoid in Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in citrus fruits, maize, etc. In the investigation of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ulopterol, a coumarin isolated as another major active antimicrobial principle, found that the ethyl acetate extract which was found to possess highest antimicrobial activity was subjected to activity guided fractionation by column chromatography over silica gel. This resulted in the isolation of the coumarin, Ulopetrol, an active principle besides Flindersine which was reported by us earlier, according to " Antimicrobial activity of Ulopterol isolated from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.: A traditional medicinal plant" by Karunai Raj M, Balachandran C, Duraipandiyan V, Agastian P, Ignacimuthu S.(1).

2. Celery and parsley
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and Citrin is defined as a group of water-soluble phytonutrients with yellow pigments having a structure similar to flavones found abundantly in celery and parsley. In a reseach of "Assessment of the Antibacterial Activity and the Antidiarrheal Function of Flavonoids from Bayberry Fruit" by Wei Rong Yao*, He Ya Wang, Shi Tao Wang, Shi Lei Sun, Jie Zhou, and Yun Yun Luan (State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China), posted in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, in abstract, researchers wrote that The active compounds showed green or blue fluorescence under UV light using the bioautography method and were purified using a polyamide column. The fraction F1 with the most activity was comprised of flavonoids, which included cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, myricetin deoxyhexoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin deoxyhexoside, and it also possessed an antidiarrheal activity (p < 0.10) at 80 mg/kg in mice. These findings provide scientific evidence for the antidiarrheal function of bayberry(2).

3.  Algae
Carotenoids are fat soluble organic pigments of plants such as algae, some bacteria, and fungus.
 It generally cannot be manufactured by animals but have to acquired plants. It is said that consuming caretrnoids can optimize your health against many types of chronic illness as it acts as antioxidant fighting against foreigner invasion such as bacteria and virus and promotes the immune system guarding our body from oxidation causes of irregular cells growth, such as tumors. In a study of "Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species." by Diplock AT, Charleux JL, Crozier-Willi G, Kok FJ, Rice-Evans C, Roberfroid M, Stahl W, ViƱa-Ribes J. (Source from International Antioxidant Research Centre, UMDS, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.") posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, as the paper assesses critically the science base that underpins the argument that oxidative damage is a significant causative factor in the development of human diseases and that antioxidants are capable of preventing or ameliorating these disease processes(3).

4. Peanuts, sesame seeds and sunflower seeds
Saponins are a group of phytochemical compounds presented in various plant species, including Phytosterols found abundantly in almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds,etc..In a study of "Enhancement of humoral immune responses to inactivated Newcastle disease and avian influenza vaccines by oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins in chickens" by Zhai L, Li Y, Wang W, Hu S. (Source from Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China), posted in PubMed, researchers found that GSLS significantly increased the antibody level against ND in the serum of chickens. In experiment 2, the same regimen of GSLS was administered to chickens inoculated with inactivated AI vaccines, and an enhanced serum antibody response to AI vaccination was also observed. Considering the safety of GSLS, because no adverse effect was found throughout the experiments, GSLS may be a promising oral adjuvant to improve immunization in poultry(4).

5. Etc.

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Sources
(1)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265751
(2) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf200211m 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9849355
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21844260

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