Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Endomatrial Cancer

 Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmateutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
I. Endomatrial Cancer
Endometrium is the inner lining of the mammalian uterus and very susceptible hormone change, particular to menstrual cycle. Endometrial cancer is a late adulthood cancer defined as a condition of which the cells of the endometrial lining of uterus have growth uncontrollable or become cancerous as a result of the alternation of cells DNA. It's the fourth most common cancer among women overall, after breast cancer, lung cancer, and bowel cancer.

II. Types of foods to prevent and treat endometrial cancer
1. Legumes
Genistein, a phytochemical in the Isoflavones, found abundantly in Legumes, has exerted protective effects against endometrial cancer. Dr. Sampey BP, and the research team at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill showed that nutritionally relevant concentrations (nM) of genistein inhibit the proliferative effects of estrogen on endometrial adenocarcinoma cells presumably through activation of stromal cell ERβ. We believe that sub-micromolar concentrations of genistein may represent a novel adjuvant for endometrial cancer treatment and prevention(1).

2. Soy food and tea 
In the study to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) gene with soy isoflavones, tea consumption, and dietary fiber on endometrial cancer risk in a population-based, case-control study of 1,199 endometrial cancer patients and 1,212 controls, found that the Asp(327)Asn (rs6259) polymorphism was associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.62-1.00). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) modified associations of soy isoflavones and tea consumption but not fiber intake with endometrial cancer, with the inverse association of soy intake and tea consumption being more evident for those with the Asp/Asp genotype of the SHBG gene at Asp(327)Asn (rs6259), particularly premenopausal women (P(interaction) = 0.06 and 0.02, respectively, for soy isoflavones and tea intake)(2).

3. Cruciferous vegetables
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) found a abundantly in Cruciferous vegetables has exerted protective effect that cause endomatrial cancer cells apoptosis. In the study to examine the possibility that induction of growth arrest in response to DNA damage (GADD) in genes by diindolylmethane (DIM), which is the acid-catalyzed condensation product of I3C, promotes metabolically stressed cancer cells to undergo apoptosis, indicated that a synergistic effect of I3C and genistein for induction of GADD expression, thus increasing apoptosis, and for decrease of expression driven by ER-alpha. Because of the synergistic effect of I3C and genistein, the potential exists for prophylactic or therapeutic efficacy of lower concentrations of each phytochemical when used in combination(3).

4. Legume, soy, tofu, and isoflavone intake 
Other researchers suggested that a reduced risk of endometrial cancer was associated with total isoflavone intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥7.82 vs <1.59 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91), daidzein intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.54 vs <0.70 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.90), and genistein intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.40 vs <0.69 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91). No statistically significant association with endometrial cancer risk was observed for increasing intake of legumes, soy, tofu, or glycitein. Truncated age-adjusted incidence rates of endometrial cancer for the highest vs lowest quintile of total isoflavone intake were 55 vs 107 per 100 000 women per year, respectively. The partial population attributable risk percent for total isoflavone intake lower than the highest quintile was 26.7% (95% CI = 5.3% to 45.8%)(4).

5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21281625
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005973 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12840226 

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