Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Hodgkin's lymphoma

 Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmaceutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.

I. Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Hodgkin's Lymphoma, a type of lymphoma is also known as Hodgkin's Disease started from the lymph nodes in the chest, armpits and neck. It was named under Thomas Hodgkin, for first to describe the abnormalities of the lymph system in 1832. Hodgkin's lyphoma, is invasive and tends to spread orderly from one lymph node group to another. It is not a common disease with approximately 800 and 7000 of new cases reported every year in Canada and US accordingly and mostly occurs to young adults and after the age of 45.

II. Types of Hodgkin's lymphoma
1. Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's Lymphoma's (NSHD)
It is the most common type of Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounted for 60% to 80% of all cases originated from the lymph nodes of the chest, including the upper diaphragm and abdominal muscles that control breathing just under the lung.

2. Mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma (MCHD)
It is another type of Hodgkin's lymphma, accounted for 15 - 30% of all cases and tends to affect the lymph nodes of the abdomen, the neck and armpits and men than women with all ages.

3. Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkin's lymphoma (LDHD)
It is a rare type of Hodgkin's lymphoma accounted less than 1% of all cases and occurred more often in the undeveloped world. Most of the time it is detected without enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin. The disease is classified to 2 subtypes
a. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (nLPHD)
b. Diffuse lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (dLPHD)

4. Lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin's lymphoma (cLRHD)
It is also another rare type of Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounted for approximate for 5% of all cases and tends to occur in the age group of 45+ years of age and more in men than women. It is most common to be detected with an enlargement of lymph nodes in the neck, chest or armpits, other lymph nodes and organs.

5. Etc.

III. Types of Food to Prevent and Treat Hodgkin's lymphoma
1. Turmeric
 Turmeric, a principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, according to "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species" by E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto and M.Y. Yong, posted in Science Direct. It has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders. Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red. In the study to to find new therapies that specifically target the deregulated signaling cascades, such as NF-kappaB and STAT3, which cause Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cell proliferation and resistance of apoptosis, indicated that Curcumin is incorporated into H-RS cells and acts inhibiting both NF-kappaB and STAT3 activation, leading to a decreased expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, e.g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cFLIP, XIAP, c-IAP1, survivin, c-myc and cyclin D1. Interestingly, curcumin caused cell cycle arrest in G2-M and a significant reduction (80-97%) in H-RS cell viability. Furthermore, curcumin triggered cell death by apoptosis, as evidenced by the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, changes in nuclear morphology and phosphatidylserine translocation. The above findings provide a mechanistic rationale for the potential use of curcumin as a therapeutic agent for patients with HL(1).

2. Legumes
Genistein, a phytochemical in the Isoflavones, found abundantly in Legumes, has exerted protective effects against Hodgkin's Lymphoma. In the study to investigate genistein's inhibitory effect on the growth of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (RS4;11 and CEM), lymphoma (Toledo and GA10) and multiple myeloma (OPM-2 and U266) cell lines in vitro, indicated that  The mechanism of growth inhibition was through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The concomitant altered expression of apoptosis pathway proteins and cell cycle modulators (caspases 9, 3, 7, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase], cIAP1 [inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1], Bcl-2 and cyclin B1) were observed by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. In addition, some malignancy-related embryologic pathway proteins, e.g. Notch1 and Gli1, were modulated by genistein treatment in sensitive cell lines(2).

3. Green tea
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a phytochemicals found abundantly in green tea has enhanced the protective effects against Lymphoma. Dr, Yu AF, and scientists at the Fujian Medical University,in the study of [Demethylation and transcription of p16 gene in malignant lymphoma cell line CA46 induced by EGCG], found that after treatment with EGCG for 48 hours, the methylation level was apparently attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of p16 gene in untreated group was mild while in the treated groups it had been greatly strengthened, as compared with untreated group, the gray scale ratio of p16 to beta-actin 1 treated with EGCG (6, 12, 24) microg/ml was increased from (0.05 +/- 0. 01) to (0.19 +/- 0.03), (0.39 +/- 0.10), (0.85 +/- 0.09) respectively, exhibiting a significant difference (p < 0.05); as compared with the untreated group, after treatment with EGCG for 48 hours, the expressions of DNMT3A and DNMT3B were obviously down-regulated. It is concluded that EGCG can activate and up-regulate the expression of p16 gene mRNA which inhibits the proliferation of CA46 cell through inducing the G(0)/G(1) arrest by demethylation and/or by inhibiting DNMT3A and DNMT3B gene(3).

4. Grape skin and red wine
In the study to explore the effect of resveratrol on B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), found that Resveratrol can significantly inhibit expression of Bcl-2 and VEGF in the retina of neonatal rats with oxygen-induced ROP. It may provide a protective effect on retinal neovascular diseases, including ROP(4).

5. Deep sea fish
Dr. Finstad HS, and the research team at University of Oslo, found that the monocytic cell line U937-1 was cultured in the presence of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3) (EPA) or oleic acid (18:1, n-9) (OA). EPA caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, whereas OA had no effect. At the highest EPA concentrations, 120 and 240 microM, inhibition of cell proliferation was accompanied by initiation of apoptosis(5).

6. Garlic
In the study to investigate increased garlic (Allium sativum) consumption with a reduced incidence of cancer in various human populations, indicated  that allicin inhibited the growth of tumor cells at doses two fold superior to that in normal splenocytes. Allicin also induced apoptosis, and this was associated with an increase in caspase3 activity(6).

7. Etc.

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