Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Breast Cancer

 Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmateutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.

I. Breast cancer
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

II. Types of Food to prevent and treat Breast cancer
1. Blueberry
In the study to investigate the chemopreventive activity of blueberry extract in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, showed that Blueberry decreased cell proliferation in HCC38, HCC1937, and MDA-MB-231 cells with no effect on the nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line. Decreased metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells by blueberry was shown through inhibition of cell motility using wound-healing assays and migration through a polyethylene terephthalate membrane. Blueberry treatment decreased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator while increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 secretion in MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium as shown by Western blotting. Cell signaling pathways that control the expression/activation of these processes were investigated via Western blotting and reporter gene assay. Treatment with blueberry decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and NFkappaB activation in MDA-MB-231 cells, where protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were not affected. In vivo, the efficacy of blueberry to inhibit triple-negative breast tumor growth was evaluated using the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. Tumor weight and proliferation (Ki-67 expression) were decreased in blueberry-treated mice, where apoptosis (caspase-3 expression) was increased compared with controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumors from blueberry-fed mice showed decreased activation of AKT and p65 NFkappaB signaling proteins with no effect on the phosphorylation of ERK(1).

2. White button mushroom
Flavones and isoflavones have been shown to be inhibitors of aromatase, it is thought that vegetables that contain these phytochemicals can inhibit aromatase activity and suppress breast cancer cell proliferation. DR. Grube BJ, and the research team at Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, showed that  The white button mushroom (species Agaricus bisporus) suppressed aromatase activity dose dependently. Enzyme kinetics demonstrated mixed inhibition, suggesting the presence of multiple inhibitors or more than one inhibitory mechanism. "In cell" aromatase activity and cell proliferation were measured using MCF-7aro, an aromatase-transfected breast cancer cell line. Phytochemicals in the mushroom aqueous extract inhibited aromatase activity and proliferation of MCF-7aro cells(2).

3. Rosemary and Sage
Carnosol found abundantly in  Rosemary and sage has exerted the protective effect against several types of cancer, including prostate, breast, skin, leukemia, and colon cancer and has been evaluated for anti-cancer property in prostate, breast, skin, leukemia, and colon cancer with promising results. These studies have provided evidence that carnosol targets multiple deregulated pathways associated with inflammation and cancer that include nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), apoptotic related proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt, androgen and estrogen receptors, as well as molecular targets. In addition, carnosol appears to be well tolerated in that it has a selective toxicity towards cancer cells versus non-tumorigenic cells and is well tolerated when administered to animals(3).

4.  Red wine
In study of red wine intake and its beneficial health effects on the proliferation of hormone-dependent breast cancer cells found that the estrogenic activity of PIC(piceatannol) and MYR(myricetin) might be considered at least as a potential factor in the association of red wine intake and breast tumors, particularly in postmenopausal women, according to "The red wine phenolics piceatannol and myricetin act as agonists for estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cells" by Maggiolini M, Recchia AG, Bonofiglio D, Catalano S, Vivacqua A, Carpino A, Rago V, Rossi R, Andò S.(4)

5. Soy
 In a study of " Biological effects of a diet of soy protein rich in isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women" , by A Cassidy, S Bingham and KD Setchell (Source from Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, UK. ) posted in The Americal Journal Clinical Nutrition, researchers indicated that these effects are presumed to be due to nonsteroidal estrogens of the isoflavone class, which behave as partial estrogen agonists/antagonists. The responses to soy protein are potentially beneficial with respect to risk factors for breast cancer and may in part explain the low incidence of breast cancer and its correlation with a high soy intake in Japanese and Chinese women(4). Other suggested  high dietary levels of soy isoflavones do not stimulate breast or uterine proliferation in postmenopausal monkeys and may contribute to an estrogen profile associated with reduced breast cancer risk(6). One study indicated that Soy isoflavone genistein induces cell death in breast cancer cells through mobilization of endogenous copper ions and generation of reactive oxygen species(7)


6. Etc.

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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20388778
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11739882
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21382660
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216908
(5) http://www.ajcn.org/content/60/3/333.abstract
(6) http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/89/7/3462.short
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462322

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