Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Cervical Cancer

Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmateutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
I. Cervical Cancer
Cervix is the lower part of uterus that opens at the top of the vagina. Cervix acts an transition area for vaginal lining (squamous epithelium) change to uterus type (columnar epithelium) through the transitional area (squamous columnar epithelium) to host the development of the fetus. Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area caused by abnormal cells growth with alternation of cells DNA.

II. Pre-cervical cancer 
Precervical cancer is the early stage of abnormal cell changes in the cervical tissue, if left untreated, it can develop into true invasive cervical cancer caused by factors connected to male seminal fluid. A vaccine, Gardasil used to prevent pre-cervical cancer from the infection of two types of HPV was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2006. It is for your benefits to take this vaccine if you are sexual active with several partners.

III. Types of Food to Prevent and Treat Cervical Cancer
1. Black raspberry 
Black raspberries and their derivatives, have demonstrated a marked ability to inhibit preclinical models of epithelial cancer cell growth and tumor formation. Dr. Zhang Z and the research team at the The Ohio State University, Columbus, showed that non-toxic levels of RO-ET significantly inhibited the growth of human cervical cancer cells, in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner to a maximum of 54%, 52% and 67%, respectively (p<0.05). Furthermore, cell growth inhibition was persistent following short-term withdrawal of RO-ET from the culture medium. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated RO-ET-induced apoptosis in all cell lines(1).

2.  Green and Black Tea
Phytochemicals present in tea, particularly polyphenols, have anticancer properties against several cancer types. In the study to investigate the mechanism of antiproliferative and apoptotic actions exerted by tea polyphenols on human papilloma virus-18-positive HeLa cervical cancer cells, showed that treatment of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and black tea polyphenol theaflavins (TF) in HeLa cells showed a marked concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation and induced sub-G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h. There was an attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential with the increase of reactive oxygen species generation, p53 expression, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome-c release, and cleavage of procaspase-3 and -9 and poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase, indicating the participation of a mitochondria related mechanism. In addition, EGCG as well as TF inhibited activation of Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) via blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of inhibitor of kappaBalpha and kappaBbeta subunits, thereby downregulating cyclooxygenase-2(2).
Flavonoid quercetin found abundantly in green and black tea are associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dr Vidya Priyadarsini R, and the research team at the Annamalai University, in the study of The flavonoid quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells through p53 induction and NF-κB inhibition, indicated that quercetin suppressed the viability of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial apoptosis through a p53-dependent mechanism. This involved characteristic changes in nuclear morphology, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and NF-κB family members, upregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome C, Apaf-1 and caspases, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and survivin(3)

3. Epigallocatechin gallate from Tea, Curcumin from curry and Soya isoflavones
Epidemiological and preclinical evidence suggests that polyphenolic phytochemicals exemplified by epigallocatechin gallate from tea, curcumin from curry and soya isoflavones possess cancer chemopreventive properties. Dr. Thomasset SC and scientists at the University of Leicester, in the review of above showed that the available evidence for tea polyphenols tentatively supports their advancement into phase III clinical intervention trials aimed at the prevention of progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, leukoplakia or premalignant cervical disease. In the case of curcumin and soya isoflavones more studies in premalignacies seem appropriate to optimise the nature and design of suitable phase III trials. The abundance of flavonoids and related polyphenols in the plant kingdom makes it possible that several hitherto uncharacterised agents with chemopreventive efficacy are still to be identified, which may constitute attractive alternatives to currently used chemopreventive drugs(4).

4. Skins of grape and red wine
Resveratrol, a polyphenol found a abundantly in  skins of grapes and red wine has been shown to significantly alter the cellular physiology of tumor cells, as well as block the process of initiation and progression, some studies found that tumor cells may exhibit changes in the cellular response to IR following exposure to resveratrol, a naturally occurring compound that inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) activity. Thus, clonogenic cell survival assays were performed using irradiated HeLa and SiHa cells pretreated with resveratrol prior to IR exposure, and resulted in enhanced tumor cell killing by IR in a dose-dependent manner(5).

5. Milk thistle seeds
Silibinin, an effective anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent in various epithelial cancer models, found abundantly in milk thistle seed has been reported to inhibit cancer cell growth through mitogenic. Dr. Zhang Y, and research team at Life Science College, Jilin University, in the study of Cellular and molecular mechanisms of silibinin induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis on HeLa cells, indicated that silibinin showed a dose-dependent and a time-dependent apoptotic death in HeLa cells in both the mitochondrial pathway and the death receptor-mediated pathway, providing a strong rationale for future studies evaluating preventive and/or intervention strategies for silibinin in cervical cancer pre-clinical models(6).

6. Etc.

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