Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Bowel Cancer

Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmateutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
I. Bowel Cancer (Colon and rectum)
Bowel cancer also known as colorectal cancer, is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon, rectum, or vermiform appendix. Bowl is divided in 2 parts, the first part of the bowel, the small bowl, is involved with the digestion and absorption of food. The 2nd part, the large bowel which consist the the colon and rectum, is involved in absorption of water from the small bowel contents and broken down of certain materials in the feces into substances of which some of them to be re absorbed and reused by the body. Bowel cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in predictable way.
Bowel cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including U>S and Canada.

II. Types of bowel cancer
1. Adenocarcinomas

Most bowel cancers are adenocarcinomas, originated in epithelium tissues, including the surface layer of skin, glands and their tissues that line the cavities and organs of the body.

2. Squamous cell cancers
Squamous cells are the skin like cells that make up the bowel lining together with the gland cells. Squamous cell cancers are rare with the risk of 25 per 100000.

Other bowel tumours
3. Carcinoid
Carcinoid is an unusual type of slow growth neuroendocrine tumor. It looks benign but might spread to other parts of the body as they grow in hormone producing tissue in the digestive system.

4. Leiomyosarcomas
Leiomyosarcomas are the rare and resistant types of bowel cancer and generally not very responsive to chemotherapy or radiation. They are malignant abnormal mass of tissue of smooth muscles of colon, comprising between 5–10% of soft tissue sarcomas.

5. Lymphomas
Bowel lymphomas are rare and more likely to start in the rectum rather in the colon. Many patients with lymphomas are diagnosed in the late stage and already spread to other organs.

6. Melanomas
Melanomas are rare malignant tumor of cells that produce the dark pigment. This type of bowel cancer usually originates from somewhere else and then spread to the bowel.

7. Etc.

III. Types of Food to Prevent and Treat Bowel Cancer (Colon and rectum)
1. Coffee
Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancers, including colon cancer, but the molecular mechanisms and target(s) underlying the chemopreventive effects of coffee and its active ingredient(s) remain unknown. Dr. Kang NJ
, and scientists in the University of Minnesota, found that Coffee or caffeic acid (CaA) strongly suppressed mitogen-activated MEK1 and TOPK activities and bound directly to either MEK1 or TOPK in an ATP-noncompetitive manner. Coffee or CaA, but not caffeine, inhibited ERKs phosphorylation, AP-1 and NF-κB transactivation and subsequently inhibited TPA-, EGF- and H-Ras-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells. Coffee consumption was also associated with a significant attenuation of ERKs phosphorylation in colon cancer patients(1).

2. Green tea
pigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic constituent in green tea has been exerted protective effects against  proliferation and migration of the human colon cancer SW620 cells. In the study of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits proliferation and migration of human colon cancer SW620 cells in vitro found that EGCG blocks the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells induced by PAR2-AP and factor VIIa via inhibition of the ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathways. The compound may serve as a preventive and therapeutic agent for colon cancers(2).

3. Extra-virgin olive oil
"EVOO-derived complex phenols (especially from the Arbequina variety olive) have been shown to suppress cell growth of SW480 and HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Inhibition of proliferation by EVOO-PE Arbequina variety extract was accompanied by apoptosis in both colon-cancer-cell lines and a limited G₂M cell-cycle arrest in the case of SW480 cells" said Dr. v and the research team at the University of Granada(3).

4. Wheat bran
Phytic acid (PA) found abundantly in Wheat bran is a natural antioxidant and may have numerous health benefits. Dr. Khatiwada J, and the research team at the North Carolina A&T State University, Kannapolis, indicated that This experiment was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of combinations of 1% and 2% GT, PA, and inositol (I) in reducing the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats. After an acclimatization period of 1 week, nine groups of rats (15 rats per group) were initially assigned to consume AIN 93 G diet and later AIN 93 M diet after 20 weeks of age. Treatments were given in drinking water. All rats received azoxymethane injections (16 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Rats were killed at 45 weeks of age by CO(2) euthanasia. Tumor incidence (93.76%) and the number of tumors per tumor-bearing rat ratio (2.25) were significantly (P<.05) higher in the control group compared with treatment groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly (P<.05) higher in rats fed combinations of 2% GT+PA+I and GT+PA (33.25 ± 1.23 and 29.83 ± 1.10 μmol/mL, respectively) compared with other groups(4).

5.  Berries
Dr. Brown EM and the research team at the University of Ulste, in the study of Mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of berry components in in vitro models of colon cancer, said "Berries are a common element of Western diets, with members of the Rubus, Fragria, Sorbus, Ribes and Vaccinum genus featuring in desserts, preserves, yoghurts and juices. These soft fruit are rich in bioactive phytochemicals including several classes of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols) and phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids). Whilst there is little data linking berry consumption to reduced risk of colorectal cancer, in vitro evidence from models representing colorectal cancer suggests that berry polyphenols may modulate cellular processes essential for cancer cell survival, such as proliferation and apoptosis"(5).

6. Etc.

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