Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Cancer of Esophagus/Esophageal cancer

Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmateutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
 Esophageal cancer
A. Espophagus or gullet, an organ in vertebrates, is the tube that lead foods from the pharynx to the stomach. Esophageal cancer is not very uncommon and caused by malignant of the esophagus due to abnormal cell growth as a result of the DNA alternation of the cells that line the upper part of the esophagus or glandular cells that are present at the lower part of the esophagus that connected with the stomach.
The esophageal cancer tend to spread if it left untreated and starts from the lining of esophagus, then later penetrate in the the wall of the esophagus and spread to the lymph node around the bottom of the esophagus, stomach and the chest, then to the distant parts of the body.

B. Types of Esophageal cancer
1. Squamous cancer
In the upper part of the esophagus caused by the squamous cell of which have become malignant caused by mutation of DNA in cells replication of division uncontrollably.
2. Adenocarcinomas
In the lower part of the esophagus caused by the glandular cells of which have become malignant caused by mutation of DNA in cells replication of division uncontrollably.

C. Types of Food to prevent and treat Esophageal cancer 
1. Different types of berry
Anthocyanins and ellagitannins, phytochemicals found abundantly in different types of berry have exhibited esophageal cancer cells apoptosis. In the study to compare the ability of different berry types to prevent chemically-induced tumorigenesis in the rat esophagus and determine if berries influence the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum of carcinogen-treated rats, showed that Seven berry types were about equally capable of inhibiting tumor progression in the rat esophagus in spite of known differences in levels of anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Serum levels of IL-5 and GRO/KC (IL-8) may be predictive of the inhibitory effect of chemopreventive agents on rat esophageal carcinogenesis(1).

2. Cruciferous vegetables and Garlic
Phenethyl isothiocyanate found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables and allyl sulfides, main ingredients in garlic have exerted the protective effect against esophageal cancer cells. In the study of the inhibition of in vitro metabolism of the rat esophageal carcinogen methyl-n-pentylnitrosamine (MPN) by garlic-derived allyl sulfides and by Cruciferae-derived phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane, showed that inhibitors were incubated with [3H]-MPN, NADPH-generating system and rat esophageal microsomes (REM) or a cytochrome P450 (CYP). [3H]-MPN activation by depentylation was assayed by HPLC with radiometric determination of [3H]-pentaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone. IC50 for depentylation of 40 microM MPN by rat CYP2E1 was 5-12 microM for diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and PEITC and 10-20 microM for diallyl sulfone, allyl mercaptan, and diallyl trisulfide. Maximum inhibition required preincubation of rat CYP2E1 with DAS for 15 min and with DADS for 30 min. Using these preincubation times, Ki for MPN depentylation by REM, rat and human CYP2E1, and rat CYP2A3 was 0.6-1.6 microM for inhibition by DAS and 1.7-70 microM for inhibition by DADS. With PEITC, Ki for MPN depentylation by REM, rat CYP2E1, and rat CYP2A3 was 0.4-4.6 microM. These low Ki and IC50 values may help explain how garlic and Cruciferae inhibit carcinogenesis(2).

3. Raspberries, strawberries, cranberries, walnuts, pecans, pomegranate
Ellagic acid (EA), a type of phytochemical compound found in many raspberries, strawberries, cranberries, walnuts, pecans, pomegranate, has been demonstrated to be preventive of esophageal cancer in animals both at the initiation and promotion stages. Dr. Whitley AC, and the research team at Medical University of South Carolina, showed that surprisingly, as much as 93% of the cellular EA was irreversibly bound to macromolecules (982+/-151 pmol/mg protein). To confirm the irreversible nature of the binding to protein, Caco-2 cells treated with 10 microM [14C]EA were subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis. This resulted in radiolabeled protein bands trapped in the stacking gel, consistent with [14C]EA-crosslinked proteins. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with 10 microM [14C]EA also revealed irreversible binding of EA to cellular DNA as much as five times higher than for protein (5020+/-773 pmol/mg DNA)(3).

4. Green tea
In the study to evaluate the relationship between green tea consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer of the 902 patients interviewed, 734 (81.4%) had their disease pathologically confirmed, showed that All analyses of tea effects were conducted separately among men and women and all were adjusted for age. After further adjustment for other known confounders, a protective effect of green tea drinking on esophageal cancer was observed among women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30-0.83), and this risk decreased (P for trend < or = .01) as tea consumption increased. Among men, the ORs were also below 1.00, although not statistically significant. ORs for green tea intake were estimated among those persons who neither smoked nor drank alcohol. In this subset, statistically significant decreases in risk among tea drinkers were observed for both men (OR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22-0.86; P for trend = .05) and women (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77; P for trend < .001)(4).

5. Grape and red wine
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol found in the skin of the grape and red wine, has been found to have chemopreventitive effects in some carcinogenic models. In the observation to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on the transition from reflux esophagitis to Barrett's metaplasia to dysplasia to esophageal adenocarcinoma in an established rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent esophagoduodenal anastomosis as per institutional approved protocol, showed that morphological characteristics consistent with decreased esophagitis and incidences of metaplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma were seen on histopathology in the resveratrol group. Resveratrol resulted in a small diminution of the carcinogenic effects and progression to metaplasia, and further human studies are designed to explore the potential anticarcinogenic mechanism(5).

6. Etc. 

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