Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Brain and Spinal Cord Cancer

Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmateutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
III. Brain and Spinal Cord Cancer
A. Brain and spinal cord make up the nervous system. Brain and Spinal Cord tumors originating is not very common. Most primary tumors are caused by abnormal cells growth that surround and support neurons, with a small number may be caused by gene defect from exposure to radiation or toxic chemicals. Benign tumors are noncancerous, and malignant tumors are cancerous. More than 190.000 people in US are diagnosed with a brain tumor each year alone.

B. Types of brains and spinal cord cancer
1. Non-infiltrating astrocytomas
Noninfiltrating astrocytomas are tumors that grow slowly and usually do not grow into the tissues around them and is considered as benign tumors.
a. Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas
Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas occur most often in the cerebellum in young children and is a neoplasm of the brain that occurs more often in children and young adults (in the first 20 years of life).
b. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas grow in the ventricles and are almost always seen in children with tuberous sclerosis, but it can can become aggressive and cause obstructive hydrocephalus usually in older children and adolescents.

2. Low-grade astrocytomas (Infiltrating or diffuse astrocytomas)
An astrocytoma is a type of glioma that develops from star-shaped cells (astrocytes) that support nerve cells and accounts for about 10 percent to 15 percent of gliomas, a primary brain tumor that originates from the supportive cells of the brain. Low-grade astrocytomas is classified as a grade II tumor.

3. Intermediate- and high-grade astrocytomas
a. Intermediate- grade astrocytomas
Intermediate-grade astrocytomas (grade III) have more anaplasia and readily detectable mitotic activity, but not necrosis. The white arrow points to a mitotic figure. Glioblastomas, which are the most malignant grade of astrocytoma, are highly anaplastic and contain mitotic activity and tumour necrosis.
b. High-grade astrocytomas
High-grade astrocytomas are very different from secondary brain tumors, which originally developed elsewhere in the body and spread (metastasized) to the brain and generally respond poorly to surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

4. Oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas
a. Anaplastic astrocytomas
Malignant or anaplastic astrocytoma is a glioma that develops from star-shaped glial cells (astrocytes) that support nerve cells. It is an infiltrating, primary brain tumor, with tentacles that may invade surrounding tissue and is classified as more aggressive grade III astrocytomas.
b. Glioblastomas
Glioblastomas is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, involving glial cells and accounting for 52% of all parenchymal brain tumor cases and 20% of all intracranial tumors and is and is classified as more aggressive grade IV astrocytomas.

5. Ependymomas and anaplastic ependymomas
a. Ependymomas
Ependymoma is malignant glioma originated in ependyma, a tissue of the central nervous system. Usually, in children the location is intracranial, while in adults it is spinal. The common location of intracranial ependymoma is the fourth ventricle. Rarely, ependymoma can occur in the pelvic cavity.

6. Anaplastic ependymomas
Anaplastic ependymoma is a malignant tumor of ependymomas, a tissue of the central nervous system commonly found in children and adults that are younger than 25 years old. These tumors grow rapidly and most patient eventually die if the tumor is not diagnosed and treated early.

7. Schwannomas (including acoustic neuromas)
Schwannomas is a noncancerous nerve sheath tumor arises from the nerve sheath and consisted of Schwann cells in a collagenous matrix, which normally produce the protective covering to peripheral nerves. As it grows, it can cause pressure, irritation or damage to the nerve and affect the sensations of hearing and balance.

8. Spinal cord tumors
Primary cancerous tumors of spinal cord are not common. Most of spinal cord tumors are secondary tumors, and are spread from other parts of the body but they can interfere with the transmitting signals from the brain to the spinal cord, leading to loss of function and sensation.

9. Lymphomas
Lymphomas is a cancer in the lymphatic cells of the immune system, including Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
a. Hodgkin disease
Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma found in the lymph nodes, named after Thomas Hodgkin who published the first description of lymphoma in 1832 and can spread systemically from one lymph node group to another.
b. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are caused by abnormal growth of cancerous white blood cells (T and B cells) due to mutation or alternation of cells DNA. They can spread to almost any other part of the body.

10. Brain tumors that occur more often in children
a. Astrocytomas
Astrocytomas in children age from 5 -8 age are usually benign, low grade which are localized and grow slowly.
b. Ependymomas
Ependymomas arises from cells of the ependymal lining located in tiny passageways (ventricles) in the brain and interfered with the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), causing problem of speak, walk, eat, see and other normal functions in children.

c. Medulloblastomas
Medulloblastomas are the most common types of brain cancers in children originated in the cerebellum (10-20%) or posterior fossa (40%) and occurred more often in boys than girls between age 5 to 10.

11. Etc.

C. Types of Food to Prevent and Treat Brain and Spinal Cord Cancer
1, Green tea
Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), a main ingredients in green tea has shown protective effect against brain cancer. In the study to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea polyphenols, on human glioblastoma cell lines U-373 MG and U-87 MG, rat glioma cell line C6, and rat nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cell line MtT/E, showed that EGCG inhibited viability of MtT/E cells only at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Quantitative study by flow cytometry demonstrated that lower doses of EGCG (12.5, 25, 50 microg/ml) induced apoptosis in U-373 MG, U-87 MG, and C6 cells; however, only the highest dose (100 microg/ml) induced apoptosis in MtT/E cells. Compared with other cell lines, MtT/E cells showed stronger IGF-I immunoreactivity. Neutralization of IGF-I with an antihuman IGF-I antibody reduced viability of the cell lines(1).

2. Mangosteen
γ-mangostin, a phytochemical compound found abundantly in Mangosteen has found to be effective in against Gliomas which is a common type of primary brain tumor with glioblastoma multiforme accounting for the majority of human brain tumors. Dr. Chang HF and the research team at the ollege of Pharmacy, and Center of e-CAM, Taipei Medical University showed that The γ-mangostin showed potent antiproliferative activity toward MGs in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, flow cytometric analysis of cell morphology in the apoptotic cells revealed an increase in hypodiploid cells in γ-mangostin treated U87 MG and GBM 8401 cells, while significant enhancement of intracellular peroxide production was detected in the same γ-mangostin treated cells by DCHDA assay and DiOC(6)(3) stain. g-Mangostin induced apoptosis, which in turn mediates cytotoxicity in human MG cells was prevented by the addition of catalase(2).

3. Grapes, red wine, berries and peanuts
Resveratrol is a type of natural phenol found abundantly in Grapes, red wine, berries and peanuts of the group of Stilbenoids, produced naturally by many plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. It has been studied by many researchers for it health benefits in treating chronic diaereses, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. Resveratrol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects on a variety of cancer cells in vitro and in various animal models. However, the effect(s) of resveratrol in vivo on humans are still controversial. This study discusses current knowledge with regard to the effects of resveratrol in relation to its potential as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic molecule against human gliomas(3).

4. Phytochemical diet(PtcD)
In the study of Glioma induced by ethylnitrosourea to pregnant females fed the diets from the start of gestation until the moment of sacrifice of the offpsrings, found that in male rats fed the PtcD or the BD the incidence of gliomas was markedly reduced compared to rats fed a standard diet (StD). In females this effect was weaker and was limited to the PtcD. A significant proportion of rats with brain tumors and fed the StD exhibited SE evidenced by weight loss, a shorter survival, reduction in liver weight and an increased proportion of liver mitochondria, effects that were not observed in their counterpart fed PtcD. Comparison of the expression of genes involved in the balance proliferation/apoptosis and in the response to oxidative stress in male brain tumors showed that the prevention of SE was associated with an increase in bcl-2 and catalase and a decrease in ki-67, sod-1 and sod-2 transcripts(4)

5. Dietary antioxidants 
Dr, Sheweita SA and Dr. Sheikh BY. at the Alexandria University, Egypt in the study of Can dietary antioxidants reduce the incidence of brain tumors?, showed that dietary supplementation with antioxidants [e.g. vitamins C & E] was found to reduce the incidence of brain tumors in children whose mothers took these vitamins throughout pregnancy. On the other hand, decreases in antioxidant levels were correlated with the severity of malignancy of brain tumors, and also with accumulation of considerable amounts of oxidative stress products including free radicals which damage this tissue. The mechanisms of protection of these antioxidants against brain tumors might be due to inhibition of the nitrosation process, decreasing of tumor necrotic factor, scavenging of free radicals, inhibition of telomerase activity which facilitates telomere attrition(5)

6. Beans
In the study to investigate potential associations between diet and adult glioma with a population-based case-control study of adult glioma in eastern Nebraska. Nutrient and food group intakes were estimated for 236 glioma cases and 449 controls using information obtained from a food-frequency questionnaire, indicated that after adjusting for potential confounders, inverse associations with risk of adult glioma were observed for intakes of dark yellow vegetables (highest quartile versus lowest: OR = 0.6, Ptrend = 0.03) and beans (OR = 0.4, Ptrend = 0.0003), but no associations were seen for dietary sources of preformed nitrosamines or high-nitrate vegetables. Our nutrient analysis revealed significant inverse associations between risk of adult glioma and dietary intake of pro-vitamin A carotenoids (highest quartile versus lowest: OR = 0.5, Ptrend = 0.005), a-carotene (OR = 0.5, Ptrend = 001), beta-carotene (OR = 0.5, Ptrend = 0.01), dietary fiber (OR=0.6, Ptrend = 0.048) and fiber from beans (OR = 0.5, Ptrend = 0.0002). We observed no significant associations with risk of adult glioma for intakes of other nutrients or compounds including nitrate, nitrite, vitamin C, vitamin E, saturated fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber from grain products, or fiber from fruit and vegetables(6).

7. Etc.

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