Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Bone Cancer

Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmateutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
II. Bone cancer
A. A bone cancer is an abnormal growth of cells within the bone that have became cancerous. Bone cancer may be classified as primary cancer originated in the bone, and secondary cancer originated from elsewhere.

B. Types of bone cancer
B.1. Osteosarcoma(35%)
Osteosarcoma, a cancerous bone tumor, is the most common type of aggressive and primary bone cancer, usually arise in a bone and destroy local tissue and weakens the bone. Since osteosarcoma develops from osteoblasts, it most commonly affects adolescents and young adult and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee joint. It affects about four in one million people in the United States every year.

B.2. Chondrosarcoma(25%)
Chondrosarcoma is a cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce flexible connective tissues between bones. It is is the second most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone, representing approximately 25% of all primary osseous neoplasms.

B.3. Ewing's sarcoma(16%)
Ewing's sarcoma, a rare cancer disease found in the bone or in soft tissue, is a malignant bone tumor that affects childhood and young adulthood, but usually develops during puberty and spreads to the lungs and other bones.

B.4. Less frequently (≤ 5%) occurring tumors are chordoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone, and fibrosarcoma of bone.

C. Types of Food to Prevent and Treat Bone Cancer
C.1.  Osteosarcoma(35%)
1. Green tea
Dr. Hönicke AS and the research team at University Medicine Greifswald, in the study of The link between cancer and inflammation, found that  IL-1Ra and EGCG downregulated IL-1-induced IL-6 and IL-8 release from U-2 OS cells by 65-85%. IL-1Ra and EGCG also reduced secretion of invasiveness-promoting MMP-2 and pro-angiogenic VEGF to 62-75% without affecting the metabolic response and caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, downregulation of IL-1-induced tumorigenic factors (IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, MMP-2) in U-2 OS by IL-1Ra and EGCG may positively affect tumor-associated inflammation and, as a consequence, lead to reduction in angiogenesis and invasiveness. This renders a combined administration of EGCG and IL-1Ra a promising approach as an adjuvant therapy in patients with osteosarcoma(1).

2. Aromatic plants like nutmeg, basil, cinnamon and bay leaves
Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) found abundantly in aromatic plan has exerted the protective effect against certain types of cancer. Dr. Jaganathan SK and Dr. Supriyanto E., in the study of Antiproliferative and molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in cancer cells, showed that eugenol possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in melanoma, skin tumors, osteosarcoma, leukemia, gastric and mast cells(2).

3. Turmeric
Curcumin the main ingredient of turmeric has shown to induce cell apoptosis in human osteosarcoma. Dr. Li Y, and scientists at the Qilu Hospital, Shandong University indicated that curcumin caused marked inhibition of osteosarcoma cell growth and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. This was associated with concomitant attenuation of Notch-1 and downregulation of its downstream genes, such as matrix metalloproteinases, resulting in the inhibition of osteosarcoma cell invasion through Matrigel. We also found that specific downregulation of Notch-1 via small-interfering RNA prior to curcumin treatment resulted in enhanced inhibition of cell growth and invasion(3).

4. Etc.

C.2. Chondrosarcoma(25%)
1. Green Tea
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor that responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth in animal models. In the study conducted by National Chung Hsing University, Dr. Yang WH and research team indicated that EGCG induced cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines but not primary chondrocytes. EGCG induced upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, and dysfunction of mitochondria in chondrosarcoma and EGCG triggered ROS and activated the ASK1-p38/JNK pathway, resulting chondrosarcoma cell death. Importantly, animal studies revealed a dramatic reduction in tumor volume after 24 days of treatment(4)

2. Turmeric
Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, Curcumin the main ingredient of turmeric has shown to induce cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma. Dr. Lee HP, and scientists at the China Medical University Hospital, found that Curcumin induced upregulation of Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression in chondrosarcoma cells. Transfection of cells with Fas, FasL, or DR5 siRNA reduced curcumin-induced cell death. In addition, p53 involved in curcumin-mediated Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression and cell apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells. Most importantly, animal studies revealed a dramatic 60% reduction in tumor volume after 21days of treatment(5).

3. Etc. 

C.3. Ewing's sarcoma(16%)
1. Turmeric
Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound found in the turmeric. Under investigation as a chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent in adult cancer models at both pre-clinical and clinical levels. In this preliminary study, showed that curcumin is effective in causing cell cycle arrest, inducing apoptosis, and suppressing colony formation in the Ewing sarcoma cell line SK-NEP-1. Curcumin causes upregulation of cleaved caspase 3 and downregulation of phospho-Akt, producing apoptosis in Ewing sarcoma cells at an inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of approximately 4 μM. (6)

2. Green tea
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) is constitutively activated in  Ewing family tumors (EFT) and that the major catechin derivative found in green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can inhibit cell proliferation and survival of EFT cells through the inhibition of IGFIR activity, as treatment of EFT cell lines with EGCG blocked the autophosphorylation of IGFIR tyrosine residues and inhibited its downstream pathways including phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt, Ras-Erk, and Jak-Stat cascades. EGCG treatment was associated with dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation, viability, and anchorage-independent growth, as well as with the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Apoptosis in EFT cells by EGCG correlated with altered expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, including increased expression of proapoptotic Bax and decreased expression of prosurvival Bcl2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1 proteins. Dr. Kang HG and the research team at Children's Hospital Los Angeles suggested(7)

3. Etc.

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