Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Bladder Cancer

Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmateutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.

I. Bladder cancers
A. The bladder is a hollow elastic organ in the center of the lower abdomen that collects urine from the kidneys and excreted them through the urethra.
Bladder cancer is most common type of cancer that effect men twice as frequently as it effects women. Usually it starts from the lining the bladder caused by several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder cells.

B. Types of Bladder cancer
B.1. There are three types of bladder cancer beginning in cells in the lining of the bladder, classified due to their origination.
1. Transitional cell carcinoma
In early stage of bladder cancer, normal cells become cancerous in the innermost tissue layer of the bladder which can change shape and stretch without breaking apart as they are able to stretch when the bladder is full and shrink when it is emptied. More than 90 percent of bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells
2. Squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer begins in squamous cells in the found in the tissues of the surface of the bladder, due to long-term infection or irritation. About 8 percent of people with bladder cancers begin squamous cells
3. Adenocarcinoma
Cancer begins originates in glandular tissue of the bladder, including the surface layer of skin, glands and a variety of other tissue, due to long-term irritation and inflammation. Only 2 percent of people with the condition have a third bladder cancer type.

B. 2. Types of bladder cancer classified due to their proliferation
1. Superficial types of bladder cancer
This type of bladder cancers have a characteristic of often recurrence but usually non invasive. It can be controlled or removed by regular cystoscopy.
2. Invasive types of bladder cancer
Invasive types of bladder cancer tend to spread after beginning in cells in the lining of the bladder. It often requires surgery by removing part or whole bladder.

C. Types Foods Prevent and Treat Bladder cancer
1. Soy
Soy phytochemicals have been associated with the protective effect against bladder cancer as it contains genistein, and the isoflavone-rich soy phytochemical concentrate (SPC). Dr. Singh AV and the research team at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, showed that Mice treated with genistin and SPC had reduced final tumor weights by 56% (P < 0.05) and 52% (P < 0.05), respectively, associated with induction of tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, SPC treatment, but not genistin treatment, significantly inhibited lung metastases by 95% (P < 0.01) associated with significant down-regulation of NF-kappaB expression in tumor tissues and reduction of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels, suggesting that SPC may contain other bioactive ingredients that have antimetastatic activity(1).

2. Milk thistle seed
Silybin, a phytochemical, is aslo known as Silibinin (INN), the major active ingredient of silymarin, a flavanone, found in the milk thistle seeds has been syudied for prevention and therapy of various human malignancies including bladder. In the investigation of silibinin and it effect on bladder cancer found that oral silibinin suppressed the growth of 5637 xenografts, which was accompanied with the activation of caspase-3, downregulation of survivin, and increased translocation of AIF. Furthermore, intravesical silibinin effectively inhibited the carcinogenesis and progression of bladder cancer in rats initiated by MNU by reducing the incidence of superficial and invasive bladder lesions without any side effects, which was accompanied with proapoptotic effects.(7)

3. Cruciferous vegetables
Isothiocyanates are derived from the hydrolysis (breakdown) of glucosinolates—sulfur-containing compounds found in cruciferous vegetables. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are a class of well-known cancerpreventive phytochemicals. Dr. Tang L and scientists at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, in the sudy to examine the anti-cancer activity of NAC-ITCs in cultured human bladder cancer cells. In this paper, we report that the NAC conjugates of four naturally occurring ITCs, including allyl ITC, benzyl ITC (BITC), phenethyl ITC and sulforaphane, potently inhibited the growth of cells derived from both low-grade superficial and high-grade invasive human bladder cancers and drug-resistant bladder cancer cells, indicated that both compounds also demonstrated the same anti-proliferative mechanisms: causing the cleavage of the same set of caspases (caspase-3, -8 and -9) in apoptosis induction, arresting cells in the same phases (S and G2/M) and targeting the same cell cycle regulator (Cdc25C), although a longer treatment time or slightly higher doses were needed for NAC-BITC to achieve the same effect as BITC, presumably due to slower cellular uptake of NAC-BITC. These data show that the NAC-ITCs are biologically similar to their parent compounds and are highly effective against human bladder cancer cells(3).

4. Garlic
Garlic components diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide on arylamine N-acetyltransferase have been exerted the protective effect against human bladder tumor cells. Dr. Chung JG. at the China Medical College, in the study of Effects of garlic components diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide on arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in human bladder tumor cells indicated that the viability, NAT activity and 2-AAF-DNA adduct formation in human bladder tumor cells was inhibited by DAS and DADS in a dose-dependent manner, i.e. the higher the concentration of DAS and DADS, the higher the inhibition of NAT activity and cell death(4).

5. Cranberry juice concentration
In the study to exam the chemopreventive efficacy of cranberry juice concentrate in an experimental model of urinary bladder cancer, using female Fischer-344 rats, fed with  N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for a period of eight weeks,  DR. Prasain JK and the reseah team at University of Alabama, showed that the cranberry extract neither affected body weight gain nor caused other signs of toxicity. For the metabolic studies, serum and urine were collected at 4 and 12 h after the administration of the cranberry juice concentrate and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Quercetin and its methylated derivative were detected in the urine samples. However, no quercetin was detected in the serum samples, indicating its poor bioavailability. These data suggest that components of cranberries may be effective in preventing urinary bladder carcinogenesis(5).

6. Green tea
The ingredient of (--)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in green tea have exerted the protective effect to cause bladder cancer cell death. "EGCGs that were physically attached onto the surface of nanogold particles (pNG) was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The anticancer activity of the EGCG-adsorbed pNG was investigated in C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously implanted with MBT-2 murine bladder tumor cells. EGCG-pNG was confirmed to inhibit tumor cell growing by means of cell apoptosis" said Dr.Hsieh DS and the research team team at National Taiwan Ocean University(6).

7. Tomato Juice
The ingredient of lycopene and other anti-oxidants in combination found abundantly in tomato juice have exerted an inhibitory effect on the development of TCCs in the rat urinary bladder. In the study of  male Fischer 344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in rats fed with  0.05% BBN in their drinking water for 8 weeks, followed by diluted tomato juice for 12 weeks,  lycopene concentrations in the livers of rats given tomato juice were elevated. Histopathological analysis of urinary bladder lesions revealed the numbers, but not incidences, of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) to be decreased in the group given tomato juice(7).

8. Etc.

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