Friday, 1 November 2013

@Healthy Foods - Whole Grains - Buckwheat

Buckwheat is genus Fagopyrum, belong to Family Polygonaceae. It is not related to any other wheat, and consequently is an excellent rotation crop in small grain cropping systems. Buckwheat is adapted to a wide variety of soils and climates, and now is available throughout the year and can be served as an alternative to other whole grains.

Nutritional supplements
1. Protein
2. Carbohydrate
3. Dietary fiber
4. Vitamin B1
5. Vitamin B2
6. Vitamin E
6. Phosphorus
7. Magnesium
8. Copper
9. Iron,
10.calcium and
12. Manganese
13. Zinc
14. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to the studies
1. Antioxidant activity
in the investigation of buckwheat samples (Xingku No.2 and Diqing) grown at three locations were analyzed for free and bound phenolic content and its antioxidant effects found that additionally, growing conditions and the interaction between variety and environment may have more contribution than variety to individual phenolics and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat. Environmental parameters such as higher altitudes may also have an increasing effect on rutin and phenolic acids. according to "Phenolics content and antioxidant activity of tartary buckwheat from different locations" by Guo XD, Ma YJ, Parry J, Gao JM, Yu LL, Wang M.(a)

2. Anti-fatigue properties
In the evaluation of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE) and its anti-fatigue effect found that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice, according to "Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts in mice" by Jin HM, Wei P.(b)

3. Anti pathogenic bacteria and insulin resistance effects
In the observation of d-Fagomine, an iminosugar found seeds of buckwheat and its anti pathogenic bacteria and insulin resistance effects found that d-fagomine significantly (P < 0·001) inhibited the adhesion of Enterobacteriaceae (95-99 % cells in the supernatant) and promoted the adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus (56 % cells in the supernatant) to intestinal mucosa. d-Fagomine did not show any effect on bacterial cell viability. Based on all this evidence, d-fagomine may be used as a dietary ingredient or functional food component to reduce the health risks associated with an excessive intake of fast-digestible carbohydrates, or an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria, according to the study of "d-Fagomine lowers postprandial blood glucose and modulates bacterial adhesion" by Gómez L, Molinar-Toribio E, Calvo-Torras MA, Adelantado C, Juan ME, Planas JM, Cañas X, Lozano C, Pumarola S, Clapés P, Torres JL.(c)

4. Myeloperoxidase and cholesterol
In the investigation of investigated of the intake of common buckwheat (low rutin content) and tartary buckwheat cookies (high rutin content) on selected clinical markers found that intake of tartary buckwheat cookies with high level of the antioxidant rutin may reduce levels of MPO, an indicator of inflammation. Moreover, intake of both types of buckwheat cookies may lower cholesterol levels, according to the study of "Eating buckwheat cookies is associated with the reduction in serum levels of myeloperoxidase and cholesterol: a double blind crossover study in day-care centre staffs" by Wieslander G, Fabjan N, Vogrincic M, Kreft I, Janson C, Spetz-Nyström U, Vombergar B, Tagesson C, Leanderson P, Norbäck D.(d)

5. Antidiabetic effects
In the examination of buckwheat sprouts (BS) (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism found that BS have various in vivo activities in relation to antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice, especially for improvement in lipid metabolism. It was deduced that excretion of bile acids in feces by feeding the BS diet would contribute to the suppression of the cholesterol concentration in the plasma and liver tissues of mice, according to "Effects of buckwheat sprouts on plasma and hepatic parameters in type 2 diabetic db/db mice" by Watanabe M, Ayugase J.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to the concentration
1. Manganese
It is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(1)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(2)

2. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(3)

3. Magnesium
Magnesium not only important for bone health, according to the study of "Magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Can magnesium play a key role in osteoporosis?" by Odabasi E, Turan M, Aydin A, Akay C, Kutlu M(3) but also play and important role in protecting against Alzheimer's disease, according to the study of "Altered ionized magnesium levels in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease" by Barbagallo M, Belvedere M, Di Bella G, Dominguez LJ.(4)

4. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Flavonoids
one of many plant antioxidant that only increases the immune system in protect our body against the the progression of cancer-promoting hormones attaching to healthy cells, but also destroys, as a result protecting cells in DNA replication, according to the study of "Targeting inflammatory pathways by flavonoids for prevention and treatment of cancer" by Prasad S, Phromnoi K, Yadav VR, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB., posted in PubMed ( researchers found that The present review describes various flavones, flavanones, flavonols, isoflavones, anthocyanins, and chalcones derived from fruits, vegetables, legumes, spices, and nuts that can suppress the proinflammatory cell signaling pathways and thus can prevent and even treat the cancer.

2. Oxidation
Buckwheat contains a measure amount of flavonoids if used combination with vitamin E, it not only can increase the immune system in neutralizing the forming of dangerous free radicals but also fight against free radicals cause of cells damage, according to the study of "Effect of flavonoids on 2'-deoxyguanosine and DNA oxidation caused by singlet molecular oxygen" by Carneiro CD, Amorim JC, Cadena SM, Noleto GR, Di Mascio P, Rocha ME, Martinez GR, posted in PubMed (, researchers indicated that compounds, such as flavonoids, may affect the product distribution of (1)O(2)-mediated oxidation of dGuo, and, in particular, high concentrations of flavonoids with hydroxyl groups in their structure lead to an increase in the formation of the mutagenic lesion 8-oxodGuo.

3. Diabetes
Since buckwheat contains high amount of fiber, it not only protect the large intestine against constipation, but also reduces the risk of adult-onset diabetes. by decreasing the stress of pancreas in insulin production as it releases the glucose into blood stream slowly. according to the study of "High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women" by Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Poutanen KS, Niskanen LK, Mykkänen HM., posted in PubMed (, reserachers found that High-fiber rye bread appears to enhance insulin secretion, possibly indicating improvement of b cell function.

4. Atherosclerosis
Since it contain high amount of magnesium, that only helps regulate blood sugar, maintains healthy nerve function and keeps the bones strong, but also enhances the immune system in fighting against cholesterol oxidation, thus decreasing the risk of plague accumulated on the arterial walls, leading to heart diseases and stroke, according to the study of "Serum and dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study" by
Ohira T, Peacock JM, Iso H, Chambless LE, Rosamond WD, Folsom AR., posted in PubMed (, researchers found that Dietary magnesium intake was marginally inversely associated with the incidence of ischemic stroke (P(trend) = 0.09). Low serum magnesium levels could be associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, in part, via effects on hypertension and diabetes.

5. Prostate health
Since it contains a measure amount of zinc, the mineral is necessary to maintain a healthy prostate in production of seminal fluid and quality sperm, thus decreasing the risk of sexual important and infertility, according to the study of 1,320 men over the age of 40 in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)., posted in Pubmed ( concluded that a protective effect of zinc intake on cadmium-induced prostatic injury, and may provide further rationale for investigating the impact of these factors individually and jointly on the etiology of prostate cancer.

6. Etc

Side effect1. It may cause allergic effect, according to the study of "Clinical manifestations, co-sensitizations, and immunoblotting profiles of buckwheat-allergic patients" by
Heffler E, Nebiolo F, Asero R, Guida G, Badiu I, Pizzimenti S, Marchese C, Amato S, Mistrello G, Canaletti F, Rolla G.(5)
2. Etc.

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