Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Seafoods - Shrimp

Unlike their close relative, lobsters and crayfish, shrimp are swimming decapod crustaceans classified in the family of Animalia, lived in both fresh and salt water, are found in any continent around the world. They were one of the species once considered elevating bad cholesterol, but in the later study found that they help to drop the triglyceride levels due to rich of Omega 3 fatty acid.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Omega-3 fatty acids
2. Selenium
3. Vitamin D
4. Vitamin B12
5. Niacin
6. Magnesium
7. Phosphorus
8. Iron
9. Zinc
10. Copper

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Anti bacteria and virus
In the assesment of two C-type lectins from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvLectin-1 and LvLectin-2) and theirs effect in anti cmicrobal activity, found that the two C-type lectins might be involved in immune response toward pathogen infection, and they might perform different recognition specificity toward bacteria or virus, according to "Two C-type lectins from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that might be involved in immune response against bacteria and virus" by Wei X, Liu X, Yang J, Fang J, Qiao H, Zhang Y, Yang J.(a)

2. Antihypertensive peptides
In the investigation of the izumi shrimp caught off the southern coast of Tokushima Prefecture and its effect in blood pressure found that angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides isolated from the izumi shrimp hydrolysate had an anti-hypertensive effect on rats. according to" Determination of antihypertensive peptides from an izumi shrimp hydrolysate" by Nii Y, Fukuta K, Yoshimoto R, Sakai K, Ogawa T(b)

3. Cardiovascular excitatory effect
In the determination of the cardioexcitatory substance (CES) isolated from the eyestalk of the shrimp and theirs effect on the cardiovascular system found that cardioexcitatory substance (CES) isolated from the shrimp eyesta lk produces hypertension and tachycardia mediated by adrenergic receptors in association to calcium channels activation. according to "Cardiovascular excitatory effect on rats of a fraction isolated from the eyestalk of shrimp: Peneaus vanameii" by Rosa F, Cedeño J, León L, Estrada O, Romero-Vecchione E, Vásquez J, Antequera R.(c)

4. Fibrinolytic enzyme
In the research of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme, purified from fermented shrimp paste, a popular seasoning used in Asian countries and its effect on cardiovascular diseases found that the novel fibrinolytic enzyme derived from traditional Asian foods is useful for thrombolytic therapy. In addition, this enzyme has a significant potential for food fortification and nutraceutical applications, such that its use could effectively prevent cardiovascular diseases, according to "Novel fibrinolytic enzyme in fermented shrimp paste, a traditional asian fermented seasoning" by Wong AH, Mine Y.(d)


B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Tryptophan
Tryptophan in dried bean is not only essential for normal growth and balanced out nitrogen in the body, it is also an antioxidant that helps to enhances the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radical and foreign invasion, thus reducing the risk of inflammation and infection. By enhancing the immune system, trytophan also inhiblts the cancer cells growth, in a study of "Uveal melanoma expression of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase: establishment of an immune privileged environment by tryptophan depletion." by Chen PW, Mellon JK, Mayhew E, Wang S, He YG, Hogan N, Niederkorn JY., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Addition of the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl dl-tryptophan significantly diminished kynurenine levels in IFN-gamma treated uveal melanoma cell cultures...... IFN-gamma inducible IDO upregulation by primary and metastatic uveal melanoma may generate a local immune privileged microenvironment to promote escape from T cell-mediated immune surveillance.

2. Selenium
Lamp contains trace minerals selenium which is essential for the healthy function of the thyroid and immune system as it increases the antioxidant defense system by fighting against the forming of free radicals and reduce the risk of irregular cells growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Selenium in the immune system" by Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730442)

3. Protein
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(I)

4. Vitamin B12
Besides supporting the production of red blood cell and maintaining the proper duplication of DNA, the genetic material in all cells, according to the study of "Vitamin B 12 and the macromolecular composition of Euglena. II. Recovery from unbalanced growth induced by Vitamin B 12 deficiency" by Johnston PL, Carell EF., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4633443), it also plays an important role in promoting neurite outgrowth, according to the study of "Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons stimulated by methylcobalamin" by Okada K, Tanaka H, Temporin K, Okamoto M, Kuroda Y, Moritomo H, Murase T, Yoshikawa H., posted in PuBmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458538)

5. Iron
Iron is one of important mineral in forming complexes with molecular oxygen in hemoglobin, according to the study of "Glutathionyl Hemoglobin Is Elevated in Iron Deficiency Anemia" by Shet AS, Pinto SM, Mitra G, Mandal AK., posted in PubMed(II), thus helping to carry oxygen to the muscles for energy and enhancing the brain performance, including memory and concentration.

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Cholesterol
Shrimp once were thought to contain high levels of bad cholesterol, causing clot up and harden the arterial wall and vein of blood vessel. Today new study found out that shrimp contain high levels of Omega 3 fatty acids, which not only help to balance the omega 6 fatty acids to reduce the production of prostaglandin hormone that causes menstrual cramps and pain, according to the study of "Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the management of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea" by Sampalis F, Bunea R, Pelland MF, Kowalski O, Duguet N, Dupuis S., posted in PubMed(1) but also promotes blood flow to the reproductive organ by reducing the LDL cholesterol in the blood stream according to the article of "Health Benefits of Omega 3 fatty acids" by Gloria Tsang, RD of HealthCastle.com posted in Jul 2005; Updated in Mar 2010(2)

2. Heart diseases and stroke
As the levels of bad cholesterol increasing, the walls arteries and vein hardening, it may cause break off small vein or blocked off large arteries and veins, causing stroke and heart disease, Omega 3 fatty acids eliminate the bad cholesterol, thus decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the study of 'The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): Rationale and design of a large randomized controlled trial of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease" by Manson JE, Bassuk SS, Lee IM, Cook NR, Albert MA, Gordon D, Zaharris E, Macfadyen JG, Danielson E, Lin J, Zhang SM, Buring JE., posted in PubMed(3)

3. Hypertension
As the bad cholesterol clotted up the arteries and vein, it increases the function of heart in blood circulation by increasing the pressure. Omega 3 fatty acids eliminate the bad cholesterol, thus decreasing the risk of high blood pressure, according to the study of "Omega-3 fatty acids and hypertension in humans" by Mori TA., posted in PubMed(4)

4. Antioxidants
Shrimp contains high levels of selenium, it is one most powerful antioxidant that affects the DNA repairing and synthesis in damaged cells by inhibiting the spread and growth of cancer cells, according to the study of "Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)" by Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, Lucia MS, Thompson IM, Ford LG, Parnes HL, Minasian LM, Gaziano JM, Hartline JA, Parsons JK, Bearden JD 3rd, Crawford ED, Goodman GE, Claudio J, Winquist E, Cook ED, Karp DD, Walther P, Lieber MM, Kristal AR, Darke AK, Arnold KB, Ganz PA, Santella RM, Albanes D, Taylor PR, Probstfield JL, Jagpal TJ, Crowley JJ, Meyskens FL Jr, Baker LH, Coltman CA Jr., posted in PubMed(5).

5. Zinc
Zinc is one of the controlling nutrients for progesterone production in women, according to the study of "Copper/Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase Insufficiency Impairs Progesterone Secretion and Fertility in Female Mice" by Noda Y, Ota K, Shirasawa T, Shimizu T., posted in PubMed(6) and important trace minerals in effecting the function of prostate gland to assist the production of normal sperm in men, according to the study of "The effect of zinc on the 5 alpha-reduction of testosterone by the hyperplastic human prostate gland" by Leake A, Chisholm GD, Habib FK., posted in PubMed(6).

6. Etc.

Side effects
1. Allergic reactions
2. Purines
Excess intake of shrimp can cause the accumulation of purines in the body, leading to high levels of uric acid.
3. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22094589
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18323650
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16886775
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14969560

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139563
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21996674

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12777162
(2) http://www.healthcastle.com/omega3.shtml
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986389
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16922818
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19066370
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6200703

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