Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Seafoods - Salmon

Salmon is the common name for Salmonidae. They are anadromous, born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then travel thousands of miles in the deep sea cold water throughout their life cycle and within to five years returning to the exacted location where they were born to reproduce and die.

Nutritional supplements
1. Protein
2. Omega-3 fatty acids
3. B vitamins
4. Vitamin D
5. Astaxanthin
is a potent antioxidant that stimulates the development of healthy fish nervous systems and enhances the fish's fertility and growth rate.
6. Selenium
7. Tryptophan
8. Magnesium
9. Phosphorus
10. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Triacylglycerols
In the investigation of Intake of fish and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids is associated with a reduced concentration of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG) found that intake of cod or salmon when compared with the control group. In conclusion, both lean and fatty fish may lower TAG, possibly by reducing the 18:1n-9/18:0 ratio related to allosteric inhibition of SCD1 activity, rather than by influencing the synthesis of enzyme protein, according to "Daily Intake of Cod or Salmon for 2 Weeks Decreases the 18:1n-9/18:0 Ratio and Serum Triacylglycerols in Healthy Subjects" by Telle-Hansen VH, Larsen LN, Høstmark AT, Molin M, Dahl L, Almendingen K, Ulven SM.(a)

2. Weight loss
In the investigation of supplementation with n3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-LCPUFA) and its effect in body weight, found that At the end of the 1-month period, 16 children lost weight and 27 children gained weight. Multiple analysis demonstrated that supplementation with n3-LCPUFA decreased HOMA-IR by 15% after adjusting for puberty, treatment adherence, changes in adipokines, and weight loss. Interaction between supplementation and weight loss was significant (p = 0.007), according to "Supplementation of n3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synergistically Decreases Insulin Resistance with Weight Loss of Obese Prepubertal and Pubertal Children" by López-Alarcón M, Martínez-Coronado A, Velarde-Castro O, Rendón-Macías E, Fernández J.(b)

3. Cholesterol
In the assessment of an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks,
found that these effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol levels but not HUFA levels, according to "Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)" by Leaver MJ, Villeneuve LA, Obach A, Jensen L, Bron JE, Tocher DR, Taggart JB.(c)

d. Coronary heart disease
In determination of Omega-3-fatty acids play a protective role in the prevention of CHD,
found that The treatment with salmon oil led to a decrease of triglycerides in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and to an increase of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia. Following the increase of malondialdehyde as measure of the lipid peroxidation a substitution of antioxidants, like vitamin E and vitamin C, seems to be useful. Further investigations are necessary before wide use of fish-oil capsules, not least to avoid side-effects, according to "[Changes in parameters of lipid metabolism and anti-oxidative potentials in elderly hyperlipoproteinemic patients treated with omega-3 fatty acids].[Article in German]" by Reuter W, Vorberg B, Sauer I, Krumpolt C.(d)

5. Antioxidants
In the research of the antioxidant effect of vitamin E after ingestion of salmon found that that megadoses of vitamin E, far from having pro-oxidative activity, actually increase the anti-oxidative capacity of the liver, especially after ingestion of salmon oil, according to "Effects of megadoses of dietary vitamin E on the antioxidant status of rats fed lard or salmon oil" by Flader D, Brandsch C, Hirche F, Eder K.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin D
Vitamin D not only is important to the heart health with calcium supplementation, according to "Systematic review: Vitamin D and calcium supplementation in prevention of cardiovascular event` by Wang L, Manson JE, Song Y, Sesso HD.(Ia) but also plays an vital role in epidemiological associations between vitamin D status and a large number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, according to "Vitamin D and inflammation" by Guillot X, Semerano L, Saidenberg-Kermanac'h N, Falgarone G, Boissier MC.(I)

2. Vitamin B12
Besides supporting the production of red blood cell and maintaining the proper duplication of DNA, the genetic material in all cells, according to the study of "Vitamin B 12 and the macromolecular composition of Euglena. II. Recovery from unbalanced growth induced by Vitamin B 12 deficiency" by Johnston PL, Carell EF., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4633443), it also plays an important role in promoting neurite outgrowth, according to the study of "Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons stimulated by methylcobalamin" by Okada K, Tanaka H, Temporin K, Okamoto M, Kuroda Y, Moritomo H, Murase T, Yoshikawa H., posted in PuBmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458538)

3. Tryptophan
It is one of important element in assisting the production of serotonin hormone of which is essential to enhance relaxation and sleep, according to the study of "The tryptophan depletion test. Impact on sleep in healthy subjects and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder" by Huwig-Poppe C, Voderholzer U, Backhaus J, Riemann D, König A, Hohagen F., posted in PubMed(IV) and reduces the risk of , panic, social anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders, according to the study of "Effects of acute tryptophan depletion in serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted patients with generalized anxiety disorder" by Hood SD, Hince DA, Davies SJ, Argyropoulos S, Robinson H, Potokar J, Nutt DJ., posted in PubMed (II)

4. Selenium
Salmon contains trace minerals selenium which is essential for the healthy function of the thyroid and immune system as it increases the antioxidant defense system by fighting against the forming of free radicals and reduce the risk of irregular cells growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Selenium in the immune system" by Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730442)

5. Protein
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(III)

6. Omega 3 fatty acids
Omega 3 fatty acids is necessary to maintain the ratio of good and bad cholesterol, thus reducing the risk of cholesterol inflammation according to the study of "In vitro fatty acid enrichment of macrophages alters inflammatory response and net cholesterol accumulation" by Wang S, Wu D, Lamon-Fava S, Matthan NR, Honda KL, Lichtenstein AH., posted in PubMed (IV) and forming of free radical in the heart cells, leading to heart diseases. It also reduces the risk of plaque forming in the arterial wall, thus also decreasing the risk of stoke, according to the study of "N-3 vs. saturated fatty acids: effects on the arterial wall" by Sudheendran S, Chang CC, Deckelbaum RJ., posted in PubMed (V).

7. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Cardiovascular disease
It contains high levels of Omega-3 Fatty Acids that helps to reduce the levels of bad cholesterol, thus reducing the risk of hardening of arteries and veins and damaging the functions of amino acids in repairing the cardiovascular tissues according to the study of "Fish oil for the treatment of cardiovascular disease" by Weitz D, Weintraub H, Fisher E, Schwartzbard AZ, posted in PubMed(1)

2. High blood pressure
Since Omega 3 fatty acids lower cholesterol level, it also reduces the risk hypertension, leading to prevent hardening of walls of arteries and veins, causing heart diseases and stroke, according to the study of "Long-chain omega-3 Fatty acids and blood pressure" by Liu JC, Conklin SM, Manuck SB, Yao JK, Muldoon MF., posted in PubMed(2), researchers wrote that increasing DHA (Docosahexanenoic acid) consumption through diet modification rather than large dose supplementation represents a candidate strategy for future studies of hypertension prevention.American Journal of Hypertension (2011). doi:10.1038/ajh.2011.120.

3. Insulin sensitive
Researchers in the University of California and San Diego School of Medicine found that the omega-3 fatty acids trigger this macrophage receptor, which results in improved systemic insulin sensitivity, by identifying an important receptor on macrophages which is found plentifully in obese body fat.

4. Menstrual cycle
Imbalance of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids can cause the over production of prostaglandin hormone, leading to over reaction of the abdominal muscle, causing menstrual cramps and pain, according to the study of "
Effect of Clupeonella grimmi (anchovy/kilka) fish oil on dysmenorrhoea" by Moghadamnia AA, Mirhosseini N, Abadi MH, Omranirad A, Omidvar S., posted in PubMed(4), researchers wrote that the treatment groups reported a significant difference after 3 months of supplementation with fish oil (visual analogue scale score 20.9 compared with 61.8 for the placebo (P= 0.001).

5. Anti inflammation
It is said the Omega 3 fatty acids beside reduced the risk of inflammatory effects on our joints and improved blood flow, by regulating the migration of inflammatory cells that cause inflammation, but also autoimmune diseases as a result of the elevation of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids, according to the study of "Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases" by
Simopoulos AP., posted in PubMed(5)

6. Etc.
Side effects
1. Research has revealed canthaxanthin may have negative effects on the human eye, accumulating in the retina, according to the study of "Canthaxanthin retinopathy: long-term observations" by Hueber A, Rosentreter A, Severin M., posted in PubMed(5)
2. Upset stomach and brief nausea, sometimes accompanied by flatulence.
Parasites if it is eaten raw
4. Etc.

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Sources(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139893
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22136960
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18577222
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8091840
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12951900
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19936713
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139563
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660150
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20207121

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20699674
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21753804
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20795425
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12480795
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346389

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