Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Seafoods - Scallops

Found in all of the world's oceans, scallops are molluscs with shells living in the seas and feeding on plankton. Scallops have between 50 and 200 simple eyes around the edges of their beads. and are available year-round.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Protein
2. Carbohydrates
3. Fats saturated and Omega 3 fatty acid
4. Riboflavin
5. Folate
6. Vitamin B6
7. Vitamin E
8. Niacin
9. Thiamin
10. Vitamin B12
11. Vitamin A
12. Magnesium
13. Potassium
15. Selenium
16. Copper
17. Zinc
18. Iron
19. Sodium
20. Phosphorus
21. Calcium
22. Etc.

Health Benefits
C. Health benefits according to studies
1. Antimicrobial effects
In the research of Scallop shells and the use of its shell found that Heated scallop shell powder (HSSP) possesses broad antimicrobial action against the vegetative cells of bacteria, spores, and fungi. HSSP applied to fresh vegetables and processed foods reduces the number of viable bacterial cells. The use of HSSP in food processing provides a source of minerals and prolongs the shelf life of foodstuffs. Moreover, reducing the amount of scallop shell waste would reduce the related pollution problem. This report is a review of the antibacterial activity of HSSP and its application for the control of microbes, according to "Antimicrobial characteristics of heated scallop shell powder and its application" by Sawai J.(a)

2. Humoral immunity
In the investigation of Bivalves of animals unclosed in two shell valves, such as mussels, oysters, scallops and clams found that recently, interest in bivalve immunity has increased due to the importance in worldwide aquaculture and their role inaquatic environmental science and their position in phylogenetic research. This chapter provides a short review of bivalve immunity, including cellular and humoral immunity and the key components and the interactions involved in humoral immunity, according to "Bivalve immunity" by Song L, Wang L, Qiu L, Zhang H.(b)

3. Antibacterial effects
In the assessment of Phenoloxidase in the scallop Chlamys farreri found that PO reaction products significantly inhibited the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas salmonicida. No significant inhibition was found in Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Edwardsiella tarda. When L-DOPA was used as a substrate, significant inhibition occurred in A. salmonicida only, according to "Phenoloxidase in the scallop Chlamys farreri: Purification and antibacterial activity of its reaction products generated in vitro" by Xing J, Jiang J, Zhan W.(c)

4. Immune response
In the investigation of Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), an important metabolic enzyme of aromatic amino acids, which is responsible for the irreversible oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine found that CfPAH, as a homologue of phenylalanine hydroxylase in scallop C. farreri, could be induced by cytokine and involved in the immunomodulation of scallops by supplying the starting material tyrosine for the synthesis of melanin and catecholamines, according to "Scallop phenylalanine hydroxylase implicates in immune response and can be induced by human TNF-α" by Zhou Z, Wang L, Wang M, Zhang H, Wu T, Qiu L, Song L.(d)

5. Antiobesity effects
In the study of Undaria lipid capsules contiaining n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich scallop phospholipids (PLs) with an incorporation of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) lipids (ULs) containing fucoxanthin found that incorporation of UL into scallop-derived PL by means of capsulation may lead to an additive increase in the antiobesity properties of these bioactive lipids, according to "Antiobesity effects of Undaria lipid capsules prepared with scallop phospholipids" by Okada T, Mizuno Y, Sibayama S, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Protein
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(I)

2. Selenium
Scallop contains trace minerals selenium which is essential for the healthy function of the thyroid and immune system as it increases the antioxidant defense system by fighting against the forming of free radicals and reduce the risk of irregular cells growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Selenium in the immune system" by Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730442)

3. Phosphorus
a. Phosphorus forms an important part of the process related to growth and maintenance of bones and teeth, according to the study of "Alterations in phosphorus, calcium and PTHrP contribute to defects in dental and dental alveolar bone formation in calcium-sensing receptor-deficient mice" by Sun W, Sun W, Liu J, Zhou X, Xiao Y, Karaplis A, Pollak MR, Brown E, Goltzman D, Miao D.(II)

b. Beside providing strength to bones and teeth by working together with calcium,according to the study of "The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH" by Liu J, Lv F, Sun W, Tao C, Ding G, Karaplis A, Brown E, Goltzman D, Miao D., posted in PubMed(III), it also helps to converse Riboflavin and Niacin to the active coenzyme forms for digestion and absorption.

4. Vitamin B12
Scallops contain high amount of vitamin B12 which help to maintain healthy nerve according to the study of "The multi-faceted basis of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) neurotrophism in adult central nervous system: Lessons learned from its deficiency" by Scalabrino G., posted in PubMed (IV) red blood cells, DNA synthesis and regulation, according to the article of "Vitamin B12" posted in Wikipedia(V) and protect against brain atrophy or shrinkage, associated with Alzheimer's disease, according to the study of "Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly" by Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, Smith SM, Bradley KM, de Jager C, Budge MM, Smith AD., posted in PubMed (VI)

5. Zinc
In the assessment of zinc and its effect on thyroid hormone and testosterone levels found that exercise decreases thyroid hormones and testosterone in sedentary men; however, zinc supplementation prevents this decrease. Administration of a physiologic dose of zinc can be beneficial to performance, according to "Effect of fatiguing bicycle exercise on thyroid hormone and testosterone levels in sedentary males supplemented with oral zinc" by Kilic M.(VII)

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Magnesium
Magnesium is essential to many biological processes, including aiding in the body’s absorption of calcium, thus strengthening bone mineral density, according to the study of "Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects" by Ryder KM, Shorr RI, Bush AJ, Kritchevsky SB, Harris T, Stone K, Cauley J, Tylavsky FA., posted in PubMed (1). It also relax the blood vessel thus stabilizing the rhythm of the heart and preventing pulmonary hypertension according to the study of "Inhaled nitric oxide and intravenous magnesium sulphate for the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn" by Boo NY, Rohana J, Yong SC, Bilkis AZ, Yong-Junina F.,posted in PubMed(2).

2. Omega 3 fatty acid
Since Omega 3 fatty acids are poly-unsaturated fatty acids, it helps to balance the ratio of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, thus reducing risk of heart disease as a result of plaque in arteries, according to the study of "n-3 Fatty acids decrease arterial low-density lipoprotein cholesterol delivery and lipoprotein lipase levels in insulin-resistant mice" by Chang CL, Seo T, Du CB, Accili D, Deckelbaum RJ., posted in PubMed (3).

3. Potassium
Potassium besides is important for brain cell in transmitting information to other cell in the body, maintaining water balance, preventing the forming of kidney stone, according to the study of "Empiric use of potassium citrate reduces kidney-stone incidence with the ketogenic diet" by McNally MA, Pyzik PL, Rubenstein JE, Hamdy RF, Kossoff EH., posted in PubMed (4) and regular and relaxation of the muscle, according to the article of "Smooth muscle tissue" posted in Wikipedia, the writer wrote that The endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor stimulates calcium sensitive potassium channels and/or ATP sensitive potassium channels and stimulate potassium efflux which hyperpolarizes the cell and produces relaxation (5), it also plays important role in reversing sodium in unbalance cause of abnormal high blood pressure, according to the study of "Potassium in preventing and treating high blood pressure" by Whelton PK, He J., posted in PubMed(6)

4. Etc.

Side effects
1. Purines
Purines can cause kidney stone if accumulated in large amount.
2. Allergic effect to some people.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21946319
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21713614
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22119576
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21839840
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535684

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139563
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20150282
(III) (4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966280
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394404
(V) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B12#cite_note-5
(VI) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Vitamin%20B12%20status%20and%20rate%20of%20brain%20volume%20loss%20in%20community-dwelling%20elderly
(VII) ) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17984944

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274367
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20358154
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930167
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596731
(5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smooth_muscle
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10511389

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