Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - - Seafoods - Tuna

Tuna is salt water fish found in the warm water areas of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans as well as the Mediterranean Sea, belong to genius Thunnus from the family Scombridae. Some tuna species have evolved and become warm-blooded adaptations as they can raise their body temperatures above water temperatures to enhance muscular activity and adapt to survive in cooler waters and a wider range of ocean environments.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Protein
2. Omega 3 fatty acids
3. Calcium
4. Iron
5. Magnesium
6. Phosphorus
7. Potassium
8. Sodium
9. Zinc
10. Copper
11. Manganese
12. Fluoride
13. Selenium
14. Vitamin C
15. Vitamin B1, 2, and 3
16. Vitamin A
17. Vitamin D
18. Vitamin E
19. Vitamin K
20. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Cardiovascular health
In the investigation of fish consumption and its effect on cardiovascular diseases found that , consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish was associated with lower risk of total IHD death (P for trend=0.001) and arrhythmic IHD death (P=0.001) but not nonfatal MI (P=0.44), with 49% lower risk of total IHD death and 58% lower risk of arrhythmic IHD death among persons consuming tuna/other fish 3 or more times per week compared with less than once per month, according to "Cardiac benefits of fish consumption may depend on the type of fish meal consumed: the Cardiovascular Health Study" by Mozaffarian D, Lemaitre RN, Kuller LH, Burke GL, Tracy RP, Siscovick DS; Cardiovascular Health Study.(a)

2. Good Cholesterol
In the assessment of information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, found that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, according to "[Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].
[Article in Spanish]" by Romero N, Robert P, Masson L, Luck C, Buschmann L.(b)

3. Plasma triacylglycerol
In the observation of rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) of seal oil and tuna-fish oil and their effects in heart health found that plasma triacylglycerol decreased (P = 0.03) and HDL-cholesterol levels increased (P = 0.01) with seal oil only. Hence, seal oil may be more efficient than fish oil at promoting healthy plasma lipid profiles and lowering thrombotic risk, possibly due to its high DPA as well as EPA content, according to "Effects of seal oil and tuna-fish oil on platelet parameters and plasma lipid levels in healthy subjects" by
Mann NJ, O'Connell SL, Baldwin KM, Singh I, Meyer BJ.(c)

4. Plasma lipid levels and blood pressure
in the examination of rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and its effect on plasma lipid levels and blood pressure that reductions of 7 and 14% (P < 0.05) were seen in the fish oil and seal oil groups respectively. Systolic blood pressure improved by 8 and 5 mmHg with seal oil and fish oil respectively (P < 0.05). The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower after seal oil supplementation (P < 0.005) compared with the placebo group. These results indicate that seal oil is as effective as fish oil in lowering plasma triglycerides and blood pressure, according to "Comparison of seal oil to tuna oil on plasma lipid levels and blood pressure in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects" by Meyer BJ, Lane AE, Mann NJ.(d)

5. Stroke
In the identification of the preventive role of Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, chronic neurodegenerative diseases and neoplasms, obesity and diabetes found that Fish is considered an excellent source of protein with low saturated fat, nutritious trace elements, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs), and vitamins D and B. Fish consumption may be inversely associated with ischemic stroke but not with hemorrhagic stroke because of the potential antiplatelet aggregation property of LCn3PUFAs. Total stroke risk reduction was statistically significant for fish intake once per week, while the risk of stroke was lowered by 31% in individuals who ate fish 5 times or more per week. In the elderly, moderate consumption of tuna/other fish, but not fried fish, was associated with lower prevalence of subclinical infarcts and white matter abnormalities on MRI examination, according to "Mediterranean diet in healthy lifestyle and prevention of stroke" by Demarin V, Lisak M, Morović S.(e)

6. Etc.
B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Tryptophan
Tryptophan in dried bean is not only essential for normal growth and balanced out nitrogen in the body, it is also an antioxidant that helps to enhances the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radical and foreign invasion, thus reducing the risk of inflammation and infection. By enhancing the immune system, trytophan also inhiblts the cancer cells growth, in a study of "Uveal melanoma expression of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase: establishment of an immune privileged environment by tryptophan depletion." by Chen PW, Mellon JK, Mayhew E, Wang S, He YG, Hogan N, Niederkorn JY., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Addition of the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl dl-tryptophan significantly diminished kynurenine levels in IFN-gamma treated uveal melanoma cell cultures...... IFN-gamma inducible IDO upregulation by primary and metastatic uveal melanoma may generate a local immune privileged microenvironment to promote escape from T cell-mediated immune surveillance.

2. Selenium
Turkey contains trace minerals selenium which is essential for the healthy function of the thyroid and immune system as it increases the antioxidant defense system by fighting against the forming of free radicals and reduce the risk of irregular cells growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Selenium in the immune system" by Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730442)

3. Protein
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(I)

4. Vitamin B3
Vitamin B3 or Niacin is essential for lowering high cholesterol levels, according to the study of "Cholesterol efflux potential and antiinflammatory properties of high-density lipoprotein after treatment with niacin or anacetrapib" by Yvan-Charvet L, Kling J, Pagler T, Li H, Hubbard B, Fisher T, Sparrow CP, Taggart AK, Tall AR., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448206), forming the components of cells' genetic material DNA during excision repair, according to the study of "Niacin deficiency delays DNA excision repair and increases spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow" by
Kostecki LM, Thomas M, Linford G, Lizotte M, Toxopeus L, Bartleman AP, Kirkland JB., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618655) and treating diabetes and high blood sugar levels, according to the study of "Treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes" by Vijayaraghavan K., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21172030), researcher indicated that a number of lipid-lowering agents, including statins, fibrates, niacin, and bile acid sequestrants, are available to target normalization of the entire lipid profile.

5. Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine beside is important in enhancing the developing red blood cells by stimulating the production of hemoglobin, it also helps to keep blood sugar levels steady during the process of breaking down stored energy in gestation pregnancy, according to the study of "Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine" by Bennink HJ, Schreurs WH., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1131652)
6. Etc.

C. Other Health benefits
1. Omega-3-fatty acids
Besides well known for its benefits for the maintenance of a healthy cardio-vascular system, according to the study of "Omega-3 Fatty acids for cardiovascular disease prevention" by Defilippis AP, Blaha MJ, Jacobson TA, posted in PubMed(1) and proper ratio of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acid and prevent blood clotting, it also extends the portion of your cycle in which you are fertile, by promoting natural ovulation, according tothe study of "Postpartum ovarian activity in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation" by Carriquiry M, Dahlen CR, Weber WJ, Lamb GC, Crooker BA., posted in pubMed (2)

2. Stroke
Omega 3 fatty acids lower the risk of stroke by decreasing the amount of LDL (bad cholesterol) and increasing the amount of HDL (good cholesterol) in your body, thus reducing the risk of plaque buildup in arteries, according tothe study of "Pharmacologic treatment of hyperlipidemia" by Last AR, Ference JD, Falleroni J., posted in PubMed (3)

3. Diabetes
Omega 3 fatty acid also improves the secretion of the hormone leptin, thus regulating the amount of food intake and metabolism, according to the study of "Leptin deficiency causes insulin resistance induced by uncontrolled diabetes" German JP, Wisse BE, Thaler JP, Oh-I S, Sarruf DA, Ogimoto K, Kaiyala KJ, Fischer JD, Matsen ME, Taborsky GJ Jr, Schwartz MW, Morton GJ., posted in PubMed(4)

4. Prostate cancer
Together with vitamin A , selenium is one of essential antioxidants helps to prevent the forming of free radicals that cause irregular cell growth and fight the foreign invasion cause of inflammation and infection by enhancing the immune system., according to the study of "Association of selenium, tocopherols, carotenoids, retinol, and 15-isoprostane F(2t) in serum or urine with prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort" by Gill JK, Franke AA, Steven Morris J, Cooney RV, Wilkens LR, Le Marchand L, Goodman MT, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN., posted in pubmed(5)

5. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES)
Omega 3 fatty acid reduces the ratio of Omega fatty acid 3 and 6 and has been considered as one of the treatment of dry eye syndrome (DES), according to the study of "Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women" by Miljanović B, Trivedi KA, Dana MR, Gilbard JP, Buring JE, Schaumberg DA., posted in pubMed(6).

6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Omega-3 fatty acids slow down the activities of the enzymes to improve the joint count, number of swollen joints, thus reducing inflammatory symptoms, according to the study of "Omega-3 fatty acids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect on cytokines (IL-1 and TNF-α), disease activity and response criteria" Gheita T, Kamel S, Helmy N, El-Laithy N, Monir A., posted in PubMed(7)

7. Etc.

Side effects
1. Tuna fish contain measure amount of purines that can cause health condition called gout and increases the risk of kidney stone, if eating in large amount.
2. Allergic reaction.
3. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12642356
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9161466
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20652432
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19727884
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22034786

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139563

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20842560
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Postpartum%20ovarian%20activity%20in%20multiparous%20Holstein%20cows%20treated%20with%20bovine%20somatotropin%20and%20fed%20n-3%20fatty%20acids%20in%20early%20lactation
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21888306
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20424233
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212706
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Relation%20between%20dietary%20n-3%20and%20n-6%20fatty%20acids%20and%20clinically%20diagnosed%20dry%20eye%20syndrome%20in%20women
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21922187

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