Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Whole Grain - Whole wheat (Triticum)

Whole wheat
Wheat is a type of glass originally from the Middle East, but now cultivated worldwide for commercial purposes. In its natural unrefined state, it contains many important nutrients that can help nourish the healthy body and enhances fertility in men and women alike.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Protein
4. Vitamin B Complex
5. Tryptophan
6. Calcium
7. Iron
8. Magnesium
9. Manganese
10. Phosphorus
11. Potassium
12. Zinc
13. Etc.

Heath Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic effects
In the assessment to the effects of 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread in comparison to white bread on fasting serum lipids in normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14) adults, found that add to limited literature comparing wheat whole grains to wheat refined grains on CVD risk and highlight the need to consider genetic variation in relation to lipoprotein lipid content and CVD risk, according to "The effect of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption on serum lipids in healthy normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic adults depends on presence of the APOE E3/E3 genotype: a randomized controlled trial" by Tucker AJ, Mackay KA, Robinson LE, Graham TE, Bakovic M, Duncan AM.(a)

2. Prostate cancer progression
In the investigation of rye whole grain and bran products (RP) or refined wheat products with added cellulose (WP) and theirs effect on pregression of prostate cancer found that Daily excretion of 5 lignans was higher after the RP treatment than after the WP treatment (P < 0.001). We conclude that whole grain and bran from rye resulted in significantly lower plasma PSA compared with a cellulose-supplemented refined wheat diet in patients with prostate cancer. The effect may be related to inhibition of prostate cancer progression caused by decreased exposure to insulin, as indicated by plasma insulin and urinary C-peptide excretion, according to "Rye whole grain and bran intake compared with refined wheat decreases urinary C-peptide, plasma insulin, and prostate specific antigen in men with prostate cancer" by Landberg R, Andersson SO, Zhang JX, Johansson JE, Stenman UH, Adlercreutz H, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Hallmans G.(b)

3. Antioxidants
In the classification of Anthocyanins of whole purple wheat, unpolished red rice, and partially polished red rice before and after processing to produce infant cereals and it antioxidant efect found that purple wheat infant cereals had higher cellular antioxidant activity than unpolished red rice ones (p < 0.05). Whole purple wheat infant cereals showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial infant cereal, suggesting a possibility of improving infant antioxidant status by incorporating this grain in their diet, according to "Comparative Evaluation of the Antioxidant Potential of Infant Cereals Produced from Purple Wheat and Red Rice Grains and LC-MS Analysis of Their Anthocyanins" by Hirawan R, Diehl-Jones W, Beta T.(c)

4. Glucose and Lipid metabolism
In the observation of Whole grain products, fish and bilberries and theirs effect on Glucose and Lipid metabolism found that the diet rich in whole grain and low insulin response grain products, bilberries, and fatty fish improve glucose metabolism and alter the lipidomic profile. Therefore, such a diet may have a beneficial effect in the efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes in high risk persons, according to "Whole grain products, fish and bilberries alter glucose and lipid metabolism in a randomized, controlled trial: the Sysdimet study" by Lankinen M, Schwab U, Kolehmainen M, Paananen J, Poutanen K, Mykkänen H, Seppänen-Laakso T, Gylling H, Uusitupa M, Orešič M.(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Manganese
It is one of important trace in preventing osteroposis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(4)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(I)

2. Dietary fiber
Since it contains high levels of fiber, it reduces the risk of type II diabetes and insulin sensitive, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F., posted in PubMed(II)

3. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(III)

4. Magnesium
Magnesium not only important for bone health, according to the study of "Magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Can magnesium play a key role in osteoporosis?" by Odabasi E, Turan M, Aydin A, Akay C, Kutlu M(6) but also play and important role in protecting against Alzheimer's disease, according to the study of "Altered ionized magnesium levels in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease" by Barbagallo M, Belvedere M, Di Bella G, Dominguez LJ.(IV)

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Weight control and body organs
Since whole wheat in its natural state, it contains high amount of fiber that can reduce the fluctuation of insulin and the risk of depress of pancreas that can increase appetite and weigh gain., according to the study of "The effect of using whole wheat grain in the diet of game pheasants on their body weight, dimensions and development of some internal organs" by Kokoszyński D, Bernacki Z, Cisowska A., posted in PubMed(1).

2. Diabetes
Since fiber also reduces the risk of insulin sensitive by releasing sugar slowly in to blood stream, thus decreasing the risk of type II diabetes, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F., posted pubMed(2).

3. High blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
As we mention in the previous article, high levels of magnesium reduces the risk of blood clot by dilating blood vessels, according to the study of "Magnesium causes nitric oxide independent coronary artery vasodilation in humans" by Teragawa H, Kato M, Yamagata T, Matsuura H, Kajiyama G., posted in PubMed(3), thus decreasing the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke.

4. Cholesterol Levels
Whole wheat contains plant sterols and stanols which are proven to be effective in slowing the progression of atherosclerosis by reserving atherosclerosis naturally caused by cholesterol builds up the plaques inside the arteries, leading arteries clogged, resulting in cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of "New insights into the molecular actions of plant sterols and stanols in cholesterol metabolism" by Calpe-Berdiel L, Escolà-Gil JC, Blanco-Vaca F., posted in PubMed(4).Link
5. Breast cancer
High levels of lignan in whole wheat acts as antioxidant that improves the immune function in fighting against irregular cell growth, thus reducing the risk of cancer, according to the study of " Avemar, a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract, attenuates the growth of sensitive and 5-FdUrd/Ara-C cross-resistant H9 human lymphoma cells through induction of apoptosis"byAgarwal RP, Grusch M, Hidvégi M, Jaeger W, Krupitza G, Lackner A, Madlener S, Ozsvar-Kozma M, Saiko P, Szekeres T, Fritzer-Szekeres M, Graser G posted in Journal: Oncology Reports Release date: 2009 (5), researchers found that Avemar exerts a number of beneficial effects which could support conventional chemotherapy of human malignancies.

6. Etc.

Side effects
1. Gliadin in whole wheat can weaken the immune system, leading to inflammation.
2. Wheat allergy.
3. Oxalates

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20444273
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20980650
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22035073
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21901116

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072339
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951617

1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420203
2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/114548464. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18692849
5. http://www.avemar.com/for_medical_professionals/48

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