C. Health benefits according to studies
1. Cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes
In the study of Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits indicated that consumption of fish and shrimp containing omega-3 fatty acids can result in protective health effects including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes, but Mercury can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems and impede neurological development., according to" Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits" by Smith KL, Guentzel JL.(a)
2. Neurodegenerative diseases
In the assessment of the hydrophobins and the antifreeze protein from winter flounder indicated that function of other natural, protective amyloids like fish chorion, the protein Pmel17 which forms amyloid fibrils that act as templates and accelerate the covalent polymerization of reactive small molecules into melanin, the hydrophobins and the antifreeze protein from winter flounder, according to "Natural protective amyloids" by Iconomidou VA, Hamodrakas SJ.(b)
3. Plasma concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
In the investigation of intake of fatty fish decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and increase the body burden of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) found that even though the participants had a high intake of marine food they did not have elevated levels of POPs compared to other study groups. Intake of fatty fish did not significantly affect the body burden of POPs in this study group, according to "Associations between marine food consumption and plasma concentrations of POPs in a Norwegian coastal population" by Rylander C, Sandanger TM, Brustad M.(c)
B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. TryptophanTryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(I)
2. SeleniumSelenium is an essential antioxidants--glutathione peroxidase-- besides fighting against the forming of free radicals, such as tumors and cancers and invasion of foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria, according to the study of "Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)" by Klein EA, Thompson IM Jr, Tangen CM, Crowley JJ, Lucia MS, Goodman PJ, Minasian LM, Ford LG, Parnes HL, Gaziano JM, Karp DD, Lieber MM, Walther PJ, Klotz L, Parsons JK, Chin JL, Darke AK, Lippman SM, Goodman GE, Meyskens FL Jr, Baker LH., posted in PubMed(II) it is also important for a healthy liver in helping our body in detoxification., according to the study of "Low blood selenium levels in alcoholics with and without advanced liver disease"- Correlations with clinical and nutritional status by Brad Dworkin, William S. Rosenthal, Rita H. Jankowski, Gary G. Gordon and Daulat Haldea, posted in Digestive Diseases and Sciences(III).
3. ProteinIn the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(IV)
4. Vitamin B3Vitamin B3 or Niacin is essential for lowering high cholesterol levels, according to the study of "Cholesterol efflux potential and antiinflammatory properties of high-density lipoprotein after treatment with niacin or anacetrapib" by Yvan-Charvet L, Kling J, Pagler T, Li H, Hubbard B, Fisher T, Sparrow CP, Taggart AK, Tall AR., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448206), forming the components of cells' genetic material DNA during excision repair, according to the study of "Niacin deficiency delays DNA excision repair and increases spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow" by Kostecki LM, Thomas M, Linford G, Lizotte M, Toxopeus L, Bartleman AP, Kirkland JB., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618655) and treating diabetes and high blood sugar levels, according to the study of "Treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes" by Vijayaraghavan K., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21172030), researcher indicated that a number of lipid-lowering agents, including statins, fibrates, niacin, and bile acid sequestrants, are available to target normalization of the entire lipid profile.
5. Phosphorusa. Phosphorus forms an important part of the process related to growth and maintenance of bones and teeth, according to the study of "Alterations in phosphorus, calcium and PTHrP contribute to defects in dental and dental alveolar bone formation in calcium-sensing receptor-deficient mice" by Sun W, Sun W, Liu J, Zhou X, Xiao Y, Karaplis A, Pollak MR, Brown E, Goltzman D, Miao D.(V)
b. Beside providing strength to bones and teeth by working together with calcium,according to the study of "The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH" by Liu J, Lv F, Sun W, Tao C, Ding G, Karaplis A, Brown E, Goltzman D, Miao D., posted in PubMed(VI), it also helps to converse Riboflavin and Niacin to the active coenzyme forms for digestion and absorption.
C. Other health benefits
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