Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Seafoods - Cod

Cod is the common name for genus Gadus belonging to the family Gadidae, same family as haddock and pollack, feeding feed on molluscs, crabs, starfish, worms, squid, and small fish and weight about 5–12 kilograms (11–26 lb). Pacific or saltwater cod are also found around the coast of British Columbia, Canada and the northwestern US coastal areas. These fish are three times the size of their eastern counterparts and are darker in color. According to the Monterey Bay Aquarium, the "best choices" for sustainability are Atlantic cod, from Iceland and the Northeast Arctic and Pacific cod, from Alaska.

Nutritional Supplement
1. Protein,
2. Vitamin A
3. Vitamin B complex
4. Vitamin D,
5. Vitamin E
6. Omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA)
7. Selenium
8. Phosphorus
9. Potassium,
10. Dietary fiber
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Zinc
14. Manganese
15. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Plasma triacylglycerols (TAG)
In the investigation of Intake of fish and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids is associated with a reduced concentration of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG) found that both lean and fatty fish may lower TAG, possibly by reducing the 18:1n-9/18:0 ratio related to allosteric inhibition of SCD1 activity, rather than by influencing the synthesis of enzyme protein, according to "Daily Intake of Cod or Salmon for 2 Weeks Decreases the 18:1n-9/18:0 Ratio and Serum Triacylglycerols in Healthy Subjects" by Telle-Hansen VH, Larsen LN, Høstmark AT, Molin M, Dahl L, Almendingen K, Ulven SM.(a)

2. Lipid and fatty-acid composition
In the investigation and to determine whether diets supplemented with oils from three different marine sources, found that the factors that regulate specific deposition of n-3 PUFA from either dietary oils or individual PUFA are not yet known, however the differences that we observed could in some manner be related to cardiac function and thus their relative potentials as health-promoting dietary fats, according to "Diets enriched in menhaden fish oil, seal oil, or shark liver oil have distinct effects on the lipid and fatty-acid composition of guinea pig heart" by Murphy MG, Wright V, Ackman RG, Horackova M.(b)

3. Respiratory tract illness
In the assessment of Cod liver oil, available without a prescription for hundreds of years,and its valuable source of vitamins A and D, as well as long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, found that it may be important in the prevention of respiratory tract illnesses in children (see below. Frequent Respiratory Tract Infections in Young Children), according to "Cod Liver Oil, the Ratio of Vitamins A and D, Frequent Respiratory Tract Infections, and Vitamin D Deficiency in Young Children in the United States" by Linda A. Linday, MD; John C. Umhau, MD, MPH; Richard D. Shindledecker, MA; Jay N. Dolitsky, MD; Michael F. Holick, PhD, MD(c)

4. Cod liver oil health benefits
In the observation of cod liver oil and its vitamin D effect in cell function like multiplication, differentiation and metabolism found that an adequate intake of vitamin D may significantly decrease prevalence and clinical outcome of these diseases (infective, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes). Estimated reduction of the economic burden might reach about 10 percent through normalizing vitamin D levels for these diseases. However, high doses of vitamin D monotherapy needs precaution for potential adverse effects and it should be substituted with the recommended doses of vitamin D in combination with synergistic vitamin A and omega 3 fatty acids, such as cod liver oil, according to "[Cod liver oil. A natural Vitamin D for preserving health].[Article in Hungarian]" by Fehér J, Kovács I, Corrado BG.(d)

5. Type 1 diabetes
In the assessment of the use of cod liver oil during the first year of life and its association with lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes found that use of cod liver oil in the first year of life was associated with a significantly lower risk of type 1 diabetes (adjusted odds ratio: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99). Use of other vitamin D supplements during the first year of life and maternal use of cod liver oil or other vitamin D supplements during pregnancy were not associated with type 1 diabetes,. according to "Use of cod liver oil during the first year of life is associated with lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a large, population-based, case-control study" by Stene LC, Joner G; Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Study Group.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration

1. Tryptophan
It is one of important element in assisting the production of serotonin hormone of which is essential to enhance relaxation and sleep, according to the study of "The tryptophan depletion test. Impact on sleep in healthy subjects and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder" by Huwig-Poppe C, Voderholzer U, Backhaus J, Riemann D, König A, Hohagen F., posted in PubMed(I) and reduces the risk of , panic, social anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders, according to the study of "Effects of acute tryptophan depletion in serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted patients with generalized anxiety disorder" by Hood SD, Hince DA, Davies SJ, Argyropoulos S, Robinson H, Potokar J, Nutt DJ., posted in PubMed (II)

2. Selenium
Turkey contains trace minerals selenium which is essential for the healthy function of the thyroid and immune system as it increases the antioxidant defense system by fighting against the forming of free radicals and reduce the risk of irregular cells growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Selenium in the immune system" by Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730442)

3. Protein
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(III)

4. Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine beside is important in enhancing the developing red blood cells by stimulating the production of hemoglobin, it also helps to keep blood sugar levels steady during the process of breaking down stored energy in gestation pregnancy, according to the study of "Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine" by Bennink HJ, Schreurs WH., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1131652)

5. Phosphorus
a. Phosphorus forms an important part of the process related to growth and maintenance of bones and teeth, according to the study of "Alterations in phosphorus, calcium and PTHrP contribute to defects in dental and dental alveolar bone formation in calcium-sensing receptor-deficient mice" by Sun W, Sun W, Liu J, Zhou X, Xiao Y, Karaplis A, Pollak MR, Brown E, Goltzman D, Miao D.(IV)

b. Beside providing strength to bones and teeth by working together with calcium,according to the study of "The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH" by Liu J, Lv F, Sun W, Tao C, Ding G, Karaplis A, Brown E, Goltzman D, Miao D., posted in PubMed(IV), it also helps to converse Riboflavin and Niacin to the active coenzyme forms for digestion and absorption.

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Vitamin B12
Although vitamin B12 is a water solute vitamin, it does not secrete fast through urinary but stored in kidney, liver and other body tissues for future used in case of deficiency. Besides Playing a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, according to the study of "Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly" by Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, Smith SM, Bradley KM, de Jager C, Budge MM, Smith AD.. posted in PubMed(1), it also promotes healthy wall of arteries and vein, thus reducing the risk of heart diseases and stroke., according to the study "Hyperhomocysteinaemia and vitamin B12 deficiency: the long-term effects in cardiovascular disease" by van Oijen MG, Vlemmix F, Laheij RJ, Paloheimo L, Jansen JB, Verheugt FW., Posted in PubMed(2)

2. Omega 3 fatty acid
Cod contains high levels of Omega 3 fatty acid which lowers triglycerides and increases HDL cholesterol and prevent blood from clotting as it is a good source of anticoagulant, according to the study of "[Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on hemorheology and coagulation in atherosclerotic rats].[Article in Chinese]" by Yang YB, Li P, Liu ML., posted in PubMed(3). It also helps to reduce the accumulation of bad cholesterol in the blood stream, thus increasing the blood flow that needs to nourish the body cells and reducing the risk of hypertension and arrhythmia, according to the study of "CYP-eicosanoids-A new link between omega-3 fatty acids and cardiac disease?" by Westphal C, Konkel A, Schunck WH., posted in PubMed(4).

3. Menstrual cramps and pain
Imbalance of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids increases the risk of over production of prostaglandin hormone, leading to excessive movement of the abdominal muscles, causing menstrual cramps and pain, according to the study of "[Painful menstruation and low intake of n-3 fatty acids].[Article in Danish]" by Deutch B., posted in PubMed(5)

4. Immune system
Since Omega 3 fatty acid helps to enhance the immune function in fighting against the foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria by producing specific antibodies to battle, destroy and then remove from your system, that reduce the risk of infection and inflammation, including rheumatoid arthritis that causes joint stiffness and pain, according to the study of "The role of omega-3 fatty acids contained in olive oil on chronic inflammation" by Wardhana, Surachmanto ES, Datau EA., posted in PubMed(6)

5. Calcium
Researcher found that Omega 3 fatty acids also improves the digestive system in calcium absorption, thus increasing the bone density resulting in lessening the risk of osteoporosis due to the effect of EPA and GLA., according to the study of "A systematic review of the impact of n-3 fatty acids in bone health and osteoporosis" by Salari P, Rezaie A, Larijani B, Abdollahi M., posted in PubMed(7)

6. Antioxidant
Selenium contains high amount of selenium, one of most powerful antioxidant helps to aid pregnant women with health fetus development, according to the study of "Prooxidant-antioxidant balance in pregnancy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplementation" by Tara F, Rayman MP, Boskabadi H, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Sahebkar A, Alamdari DH, Razavi BS, Tavallaie S, Azimi-Nezhad M, Shakeri MT, Oladi M, Yazarlu O, Ouladan S, Sangani MT, Omran FR, Ferns G., posted in PubMed(8), increases the production of sperm quality and quantity, according to the study of "Effects of dietary selenium on sperm motility in healthy men" by Hawkes WC, Turek PJ., posted in PubMed(9) and protects against the hardening of arteries and promotes the immune function infighting against forming of free radicals, acording to the study of "An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status" by Broome CS, McArdle F, Kyle JA, Andrews F, Lowe NM, Hart CA, Arthur JR, Jackson MJ., posted in PubMed(10)

7. Etc.

Side effects
1. Allergic effect
2. Purines
Excess accumulation of purines can cause kidney stone due to accumulation of uric acid.
3. Omega 3 fatty acids can become oxidized from heat, light, and oxygen.
4. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139893
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9450671
(c) http://jgrenz.pbworks.com/f/Health.pdf
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21324803
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14668274

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10721036
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19936713
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139563
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20150282
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966280

1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/187795102. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16763373
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20979870
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21945326
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8701537
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21785178
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18301367
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20629489
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11545288
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15213043

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