Tuesday, 5 November 2013

@Healthy Foods - Onions (Allium)

The onion is a plants in the genus Allium, belongs to the family Alliaceae, a close relation of garlic. It It is often called the "king of vegetables" because of its pungent taste and found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. Depending on the variety, an onion can be sharp, spicy, tangy, pungent, mild or sweet.

Nutritional supplements1. Carbohydrate
2. Protein
3. Dietary fiber
4. Fat
5. Vitamin A
6. B vitamin
7. Folate
8. Vitamin C
9. Vitamin E
10. Vitamin K
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Magnesium
14. Potassium
15. Phosphorus
16. Zinc
17. Sodium
18. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Diabetes
In the investigation of the effect of feeding 15 mg% capsaicin diet or 3% freeze dried onion powder and theirs anti diabetes effects, found that blood cholesterol was lowered significantly by dietary onion in diabetic animals. Cholesterol decrease was exclusively from LDL-VLDL fraction. Significant decrease in blood phospholipids and triglycerides also brought about by dietary onion. Hepatic cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids which were elevated under diabetic condition were countered significantly by dietary onion, according to "Influence of dietary capsaicin and onion on the metabolic abnormalities associated with streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus" by Babu PS, Srinivasan K.(a)

2. Antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects
In the research of onion (Allium cepa) (ACE) extracts onion (Allium cepa) extracts and theirs antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects found that the biochemical and histological disturbances were effectively attenuated on pretreatment with ACE. The present study showed that ACE may be a suitable cardioprotector against toxic effects of (DOX) doxorubicin, according to "Antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of onion (Allium cepa) extract on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats" by Alpsoy S, Aktas C, Uygur R, Topcu B, Kanter M, Erboga M, Karakaya O, Gedikbasi A.(b)

3. Hypertrophic scars
In the evaluation of topical treatments and management of hypertrophic scars found that topical treatments such as silicone gel sheeting and ointment, onion extract, vitamin E, pressure garment therapy, massage therapy, and topical imiquimod 5% cream in the management of hypertrophic scars, according to study of "Topical modalities for treatment and prevention of postsurgical hypertrophic scars" by Foo CW, Tristani-Firouzi P.(c)

4. Atherosclerosis (AS)
In the investigation of onion extarcts and its efect in on endogenous H2S and adrenomedulin (ADM) and on atherosclerotic progression found that onion extract exerted a marked antiatherogenic effect in association with the up-regulation of the endogenous CSE/H2S pathway but down-regulation of the ADM/CRLR family in rats with atherosclerosis, according to "Effects of Onion Extract on Endogenous Vascular Hydrogen Sulfide and Adrenomedulin in Atherosclerotic Rats" by Li W, Tang C, Jin H, Du J.(4)

5. Etc.

B. Health Benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(1)

2. Dietary Fibers
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(2)

3. Molybdenum
Molybdenum cofactor is vital for human enzymes, including xanthine oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase, Deficiency may cause
a. Prenatal brain disruption, according to the study of "Prenatal brain disruption in molybdenum cofactor deficiency" by Carmi-Nawi N, Malinger G, Mandel H, Ichida K, Lerman-Sagie T, Lev D.(3)
b. Uniparental isodisomy with microcephaly and developmental delay, according to the study of "Maternal uniparental isodisomy is responsible for serious molybdenum cofactor deficiency" by Gümüş H, Ghesquiere S, Per H, Kondolot M, Ichida K, Poyrazoğlu G, Kumandaş S, Engelen J, Dundar M, Cağlayan AO.(4)

4. Manganese
Manganese beside is a mineral essential for energy production and metabolism of foods, it also helps to improve immune-system functioning that reduces the risk of inflammation, according to the study of "The effects of 3, 4 or 5 amino salicylic acids on manganese-induced neuronal death: ER stress and mitochondrial complexes" by Yoon H, Lee GH, Kim DS, Kim KW, Kim HR, Chae HJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477646 researchers indicated that the salicylate analogues and the antioxidants did not mediate ER stress in this model. The salicylate analogues reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reversed the deficient mitochondrial membrane potential that was induced by Mn. Taken together, the 3, 4, 5 ASA worked in a similar way, regulating the Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and protecting cells.

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Iron Deficiency Anemia
Since onion contains a measurable amount of iron, it is one of the natural food that can be beneficial for the treatment of anemia, by enhancing the production of red blood cells, and quantity of hemoglobin in the blood, thus reducing the risk of iron-deficiency anemia.

2. Anticoagulation
Similar to garlic and ginger, onions is best known of anti coagulation by making the blood thinner, thus reducing the risk of heart diseases and prevent the forming of plague building up in arterial wall as a result of lower levels of bad cholesterol, according study of "Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products" by Lawson LD, Ransom DK, Hughes BG., posted in PubMed Link
3. Anti-inflammatory
Since it contains high amount of antioxidants, onion enhances the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radicals and foreign invasion, thus eeducing the symptoms of inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and gout and infection caused by bacteria, including E.coli and salmonella,etc., according to the study of Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of quercetin oxidation products from yellow onion (Allium cepa) skin." by Ramos FA, Takaishi Y, Shirotori M, Kawaguchi Y, Tsuchiya K, Shibata H, Higuti T, Tadokoro T, Takeuchi M., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19127724)

4. High Blood pressure
Study found that onion helps to reduce high blood pressure due to quercetin, the compound most commonly associated with onions, according to the study of "The antihypertensive effects of quercetin in a salt-sensitive model of hypertension" by Mackraj I, Govender T, Ramesar S., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18356687)

5. Probiotic
Fructo-oligosaccharides in onion stimulates the growth of good bacteria in the colon according to the study of "A formula containing galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides prevents intestinal and extra-intestinal infections: an observational study" by Bruzzese E, Volpicelli M, Squeglia V, Bruzzese D, Salvini F, Bisceglia M, Lionetti P, Cinquetti M, Iacono G, Amarri S, Guarino A., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19231042) and help reduce the risk of colcon tumors and cancers, according to the study of "Effects of a 3-mo consumption of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on parameters of colorectal carcinogenesis in patients with or without small or large colorectal adenomas" by Boutron-Ruault MC, Marteau P, Lavergne-Slove A, Myara A, Gerhardt MF, Franchisseur C, Bornet F; Eripolyp Study Group., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16573377)

6. Etc.
Side effect
1. No major side effect is known, but people with ulcer and taking blood thinner medicine should consult their doctor before eating high amount of onion
2. Bad breath, heartburn and stomach uncomfortable may be a concern to some people.
3. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9350033
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21996788
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21856542
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21506909

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21285035
(4) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03724.x/pdf

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